Bedside Manner

About a decade ago I had to find a new doctor. While researching doctors on the internet, I stumbled onto to a bunch of articles about the decision-making process of patients. Surveys asked patients which traits they looked for in a doctor and which factor was most important when choosing their physician. As I remember it, the answers varied quite a bit; some looked for certain areas of expertise, while others stressed an affiliation with a local hospital. Referrals from a trusted source were the most important criterion for some people, while others pointed to compatibility with their insurance carrier as the key factor.

While the reasons for initially choosing a doctor were all over the map, there was one overwhelming reason patients gave for staying with their doctors: their ability to communicate with them, encourage them, and explain a diagnosis or treatment options — otherwise known as their “bedside manner.”

I thought of those surveys as I spoke to the contractors who worked on the health care projects profiled in this issue. In many ways the dynamic was similar to that of doctor and patient. Whether it was a new construction project or a roof replacement, the owners of the health care facility needed an expert opinion. For the contractors profiled in this issue, technical competence, quality workmanship and experience were all extremely important. But all of these contractors also stressed the importance of communication — with the building owner, the manufacturer’s rep, the facility manager, their own crews and members of other trades. Throughout the job, they discussed what was necessary to eliminate or minimize disruptions for all involved — including patients, visitors and guests.

For Jason Carruth of Advanced Roofing, the task was especially tough, as his re-roofing project at Holmes Regional Medical Center in Melbourne, Florida, placed his crews right above the main entrance of a busy hospital — and its neonatal intensive care unit. When asked why the project was a success despite its challenges, Carruth replied, “The communication between the manufacturer’s rep, the owners and ourselves was excellent. Pre-planning is everything. When the key players on a job are all on the same page, that’s when a project ends up being successful.”

A good bedside manner keeps patients coming back to their doctors. It can lead to more business for roofing contractors as well.

Witness Statements and OSHA Inspections

During any OSHA inspection, the Compliance Safety and Health Officer (CSHO) will more than likely take witness testimony from crew members that are on site. This CSHO will hand-write the interview answers and ask the employee to sign the witness statement. Most employers and employees do not understand their rights during an OSHA inspection and do not know that they are not required to sign witness statements. This article explores the use of witness statements by OSHA and suggests alternatives to signing a witness statement.

First and foremost, it should be noted that all members of management, including officers, directors, and owners, have the right to have counsel present during any OSHA interview. In addition, any supervisory employee is also considered part of management, and therefore has the ability to have counsel present during the interviews. When OSHA inspects a jobsite, supervisory employees such as crew leaders, foremen, superintendents, and/or project managers should assert their right to have counsel present before giving any testimony to OSHA. In other words, the supervisor should state their name, position and assert the right to counsel. This will give the individual an opportunity to discuss the alleged violations with management and counsel prior to being interviewed. It will also allow management and counsel to be present during the interviews. Generally, these interviews occur at counsel’s office or OSHA’s area office rather than the jobsite, thereby limiting exposure to additional potential violations.

With regard to crew member interviews, management and counsel for management cannot be present during non-supervisory employee interviews. However, if the employee requests that counsel be present for the interview, OSHA must allow counsel to be present. During the interviews, OSHA will ask a variety of questions regarding safety training and jobsite-specific acts or omissions. For example, common safety training questions include how to properly tie off, use personal protective equipment (PPE), properly install anchor points, properly tie off ladders, knowledge about hydration and water breaks, knowledge regarding risks associated with swing radius, inhalation of chemicals and/or silica, as well as other potential hazards.

The jobsite-specific questions will focus on the who, where, when, what and how. In particular, questions will be asked to employees regarding the training they received and commands they received on the date of the incident. For example, if employees are not properly tied off as required, the CSHO will ask whether employees were instructed to tie off on the date of the inspection, whether supervisory employees inspected the crew members during construction, and the reason(s) why employees were not tied off. OSHA often asks whether employees were not wearing fall protection because they were told to complete work at an accelerated pace or to meet certain schedule obligations. If an employee answers in the affirmative, it could be damaging to the employer.

While the testimony is being taken, the CSHO will be drafting a witness statement, which generally contains self-serving declarations for purposes of prosecuting the employer. No one is required to sign a witness statement. Both supervisory and non-supervisory employees can refuse to sign witness statements. The CSHO may take his/her own notes and use that as evidence or have the local area office issue a subpoena requiring that his/her testimony be taken under oath. This delay in obtaining testimony may be beneficial for the employer because it will allow the employee to have the opportunity to think about his/her answers and be in a better mindset for purposes of providing testimony. It also gives counsel and management an opportunity to speak with and prepare the employee for the interview if he or she wishes to do so. Obviously, regardless of when testimony is provided, all employees must always tell the truth.

OSHA relies heavily upon the witness statements during inspections to issue citations. Employees need to understand that interviews are voluntary and that they have the right to decline the interview outright. In the absence of a subpoena, an interviewee cannot be compelled to do anything during the voluntary interview. Additionally, an employee also has the right to refuse the recording of an interview, whether video or audio, and has the right to take a break from the interview at any time.

As always, nothing in this article is meant to suggest that any employer should not fully comply 100 percent with OSHA rules and standards. However, it is important to understand and assert your rights while an inspection is being performed to help limit exposure to OSHA citations.

About the author: Trent Cotney, CEO of Cotney Construction Law, is an advocate for the roofing industry and serves as General Counsel for FRSA, RT3, TARC, WSRCA and several other roofing associations. For more information, contact the author at 866-303-5868 or www.cotneycl.com.

Improve Commercial Roof Performance With Staggered Insulation Layers

Photo: Hunter Panels

Selecting the right components for a project can dramatically improve the performance and longevity of the overall building. In a commercial roofing project, the chosen insulation and the installation technique are critical to a building’s resilience and thermal efficiency.

From a physics standpoint, energy flows from a region of high to low potential (from warm to cold). Therefore, a significant amount of heat can leave a building through an inadequately insulated roof assembly during heating season (winter) and enter a building through an inadequately insulated roof assembly during cooling season (summer). A building with an under-insulated roof assembly may require more energy to compensate for these heat gains and losses.

The benefits of installing multiple, staggered layers of rigid board insulation have been well known for years. Industry authorities, including National Roofing Contractors Association (NRCA), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Canadian Roofing Contractor Association (CRCA) and International Institute of Building Enclosure Consultants (IIBEC), formerly RCI, Inc., have recognized these benefits; and contractors, designers and specifiers have followed the roofing industry’s long-standing recommendation for the installation of staggered insulation layers.

Using the optimal roof insulation product also will impact performance. Polyiso insulation offers key advantages in meeting stricter building standards and improving energy efficiency. Polyiso has a high design R-value compared to XPS, EPS, and mineral wool board. Lightweight and easy to trim, polyiso can be layered to reach the desired R-values without being cumbersome to install.

Why Are Multiple, Staggered Layers of Insulation Important?

In 2015, the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) increased the R-value requirements for the opaque thermal envelope in many climate zones across the United States. As a practical matter, most roofs will require two or more layers of insulation to meet the local energy code requirements. In the 2018 version, the IECC was updated with specific installation requirements for continuous roof insulation. The 2018 IECC explicitly calls for continuous insulation board to be installed “in not less than 2 layers and the edge joints between each layer of insulation shall be staggered” (Section C402.2.1 Roof assembly). 

Figure 1. Multiple, staggered layers of insulation can minimize air infiltration and reduce or prevent condensation in the roof system.

Staggering the joints of continuous insulation layers offer a number of benefits:

· Increased thermal performance/reduced thermal loss: The staggered joints on multiple layers of insulation offset gaps where heat could flow between adjacent boards. The staggered approach to installing insulation reduces thermal bridging in the roof assembly. A fact sheet on roof insulation published by Johns Manville (RS-7386) notes that as much as 8 percent of the thermal efficiency of insulation can be lost through the joints and exposed fasteners of installations that use only a single layer of insulation.

· Air intrusion: When conditioned air enters the building envelope, often because of pressure gradients, it carries moisture into the roofing system. This moisture will undermine optimal performance. A peer-reviewed study on air intrusion impacts in seam-fastened mechanically attached roofing systems showed that air intrusion was minimized by nearly 60 percent when the insulation joints were staggered between multiple layers of insulation. (See “Air Intrusion Impacts in Seam-Fastened, Mechanically Attached Roofing Systems,” by By Suda Molleti, PEng; Bas Baskaran, PEng; and Pascal Beaulieu, www.iibec.org.)

Additionally, by limiting the flow of air and moisture through a roof system, staggered layers of insulation in a roof assembly can reduce and/or prevent condensation. The condensed moisture if allowed to remain and accumulate in the system can damage the substrate and potentially shorten the service life of a roof. A properly insulated roof can also prevent the onset of condensation by effectively managing the dew-point within the roof assembly. 

· Resilient roof assemblies: Staggered joints can reduce the stress put on a single insulation layer and distribute that stress more evenly over multiple, thinner insulation joints. For example, in an adhered roof system, the installation of multiple layers of insulation can minimize the potential for membrane splitting. In this system, the upper layer(s) of insulation can protect the membrane from potential physical damage caused by fasteners that are used to attach the bottom layer of insulation to the roof deck.

· Ponding water: Roof slope is often created through the use of tapered insulation systems. These systems offer an opportunity to stagger the joints by offsetting insulation layers and improve overall energy performance of a system. If the added insulation layer is tapered, the slope provided can improve drainage performance of the roof. Rainwater that does not drain and remains standing, collects dirt and debris that can damage or accelerate erosion of roof covering. Integrating tapered polyiso system with staggered joints into a roof’s design will not only improve the thermal performance but also can improve drainage and thus overall longevity of the system.

· Puncture resistance: Roof cover boards are commonly installed to provide a suitable substrate for membrane attachment as well as protect the roof assembly from puncture and foot traffic. When using products like polyiso high-density roof cover boards, the joints should also be staggered with the underlying roof insulation. This ensures the benefits discussed above are preserved in systems utilizing cover boards.

Installation Best Practices Are Keys For Success

A properly designed roof system that utilizes high-performance polyiso insulation products is a strong foundation (or cover) for energy-efficient and sustainable construction. However, the designed performance can only be achieved through proper installation. Implementing industry best practices such as the installation of multiple layers with staggered joints will optimize energy efficiency of the system and will help ensure that the roof system performs during its service life.  

To learn more about the benefits and uses of polyiso insulation,please visit the Polyisocyanurate Insulation Manufacturers Association website at www.polyiso.org.

About the author: Marcin Pazera, Ph.D., is the Technical Director for Polyisocyanurate Insulation Manufacturers Association (PIMA). He coordinates all technical-related activities at PIMA and serves as the primary technical liaison to organizations involved in the development of building standards. For more information, visit www.polyiso.org.

Underlayment Designed Metal Roofing Is Suitable For Any Roof Material, Climate

Boral Roofing offers its MetalSeal Underlayment, a high-temperature self-adhered underlayment designed especially for metal roofing but suitable for any roof material in any climate. A high-performance waterproofing material, Boral MetalSeal underlayment provides all-season durable protection, protecting the structure against wind, rain, snow and ice dams by bonding to the base sheet or directly to the roof deck and self-sealing around every fastener penetration. According to the company, Boral MetalSeal is easy to install and eliminates the need for an excessive number of nails, reducing installation time and cost. Great surface traction also enables safer, faster and easier installation for the entire roof. The high-strength woven polyester surface remains intact under high foot traffic and provides UV resistance up to six months.

According to the manufacturer, Boral MetalSeal offers a 30-year limited warranty and may be installed in freezing or hot summer temperatures alike, ensuring the job is completed without weather-induced delay. MetalSeal meets or exceeds all National and Florida building code requirements and is rated up to 260 degrees Fahrenheit. It comes in 216-square-foot rolls for a net two squares.

LEARN MORE

Visit: www.boralroof.com

Call: (800) 669-8453

A Little Piece of the Planet

There was an old TV commercial for one of the Big Box stores that really hit me. It was an ad selling garden tools and mulch, and at the end of the commercial, the tagline was something like this: “It’s not just your yard. It’s your own little piece of the planet.”

That’s how I remember it, anyway. And that’s weird for several reasons, including the fact that I almost never watch commercials (that’s what the remote control is for), and I’m certainly not a huge fan of yard work. I am, however, ridiculously attached to the small scrap of grass behind our house that is our backyard.

When the weather cooperates, our yard makes our house seem ten times bigger. The backyard provides more usable space, a place to relax and a little touch of Mother Nature. It’s a literal breath of fresh air.

I was reminded of how much I miss our backyard during the winter while working on this issue, which spotlights green roofs. I can understand the desire to increase usable space, but vegetative systems can bring so much more to the rooftop than aesthetics. They can help minimize storm water runoff, expand the natural habitat for birds and other wildlife, and help roofs perform more efficiently over a longer lifespan. From The Wharf in D.C. to a Manhattan skyscraper to home on an island in the state of Washington, the green roofs profiled in this issue are getting attention for all the right reasons.

When it comes to providing a haven for the birds and the bees, green roofs are the stars of the show, but every roof has the potential to last longer, conserve energy and help the planet. The industry is taking a leading role in educating the public and government on the benefits of long-lasting, high-performing roofs. In this issue, Tom Hutchinson, Louisa Hart and Marcin Pazera explore the importance of designing and installing thermally efficient products and systems — and documenting their performance.

The roof is the most crucial part of the building envelope, and roof performance is a critical component of a building’s energy footprint. In this industry, durability and sustainability have become the watchwords. And that’s important because when you pull up Google Earth on your computer, what do you see? Roofs.

It’s not just your roof. It’s your own little piece of the planet.

Cole Roofing Celebrates its Centennial Anniversary

Cole Roofing focuses on commercial roofing work, with a diverse portfolio that includes single ply, built-up roofing, metal, wall panels, and renewable energy systems. Photos: Cole Roofing Company Inc.

Cole Roofing Company is celebrating its 100th birthday this year. Founded in 1919 in Baltimore, Maryland, the company currently employs more than 100 workers and focuses on commercial roofing work, with a diverse portfolio that includes single ply, built-up roofing, metal, wall panels, and renewable energy systems.

In 2012, William Robert Cole, known as Billy, took over the helm of the company from his father, William Roland Cole, known as Bill. Billy Cole represents the fourth generation of his family to run the business. As the company commemorated this milestone, Bill and Billy Cole shared their memories of the company and insights on the industry with Roofing.

100 Years of History

Bill’s grandfather, John H. Cole Sr., founded the company as John H. Cole & Sons after World War I. “My grandfather started the business in his basement making ductwork for home furnaces,” Bill says.

The business expanded to include gutters and downspouts, which led to installing shingle roofing. “Near the end of World War WII, my grandfather died suddenly,” Bill recalls. “All three of the older sons were off in the military. My grandmother, Mary Cole, ran the business for about two years until the war ended and the sons returned.”

Two of Mary’s sons, John and Bud Cole, took over the business after the war. In the 50s, the company started installing BUR on row houses in Baltimore. In the 60s, at Bud’s initiative, the company began doing commercial work. Bud bought out his brother in the mid-60s, and the commercial side of the business continued to grow as the residential side tapered off.

John H. Cole Sr. founded the company as John H. Cole & Sons in 1919.

“In the late 70s, I saw an opportunity with the introduction of single-ply membranes,” Bill says. “We shut down our residential side and trained all our steep roofers to install single-ply roofing.”

Bill Cole became president of the company in 1989 and continued to build the company, expanding into metal roofing. After years of being known as Cole Roofing, the company officially changed its name from John H. Cole & Sons to Cole Roofing Company Inc. in 1998. The business has continued to diversify in the 21st century, expanding into areas including green roofs, photovoltaic systems and metal wall panels. Bill served as president until 2012, when Billy was named president; Bill remains with the company as senior vice president.

Following in Their Father’s Footsteps

Bill remembers being exposed to the business at an early age. “Sometimes on Saturdays when I was 10 or 12, my dad would go out and look at jobs, and sometimes he would take me with him,” Bill notes. He began working summers at the company in 1971 after his sophomore year of high school. His starting wage was $2.75 an hour. He was surprised to find out the laborer working alongside him — a college student — was making $3 an hour. “I stormed into my dad’s office to ask him what the heck was going on,” Bill recalls. “My dad didn’t even blink. He said, ‘Well, one day you’ll be able to tell people you truly started at the bottom.’”

Cole Roofing Company is a fourth-generation family business. Billy Cole (left) is the company’s president. His father, Bill Cole (right), the former president, remains with the company as senior vice president.

Bill worked on some of the company’s high-profile projects, including Baltimore City Hall, the National Aquarium, M&T Bank Stadium and the U.S. Naval Academy. “We did almost all of the slate roofs at the Naval Academy,” he notes. “Over the years, we did a tremendous amount of work down there. We don’t do much slate anymore, but back in its heyday, in the late 50s and 60s, we did a lot of slate work.”

Billy got his first opportunity to work for the company at age 13, when he did odd jobs including cleaning up the yard and cutting the grass. “I moved on to destroying things with fork lifts, and then when I got my driver’s license, I moved on to destroying things with pickup trucks,” Billy explains. “Thank goodness my dad was patient.”

Cole Roofing Company’s leadership team includes (from left) Billy Cole, Bill Cole and Jim Layman.

Billy worked summers for Cole Roofing while in high school and continued to work at the company while taking night courses at nearby Towson University. He decided to follow in his father’s and grandfather’s footsteps, and he’s found it a rewarding experience.

“I had the fortunate opportunity to learn a lot about succession planning and running a family business from my grandfather and father,” Billy says. “I like what I do. Roofing fills this need for people. You’re genuinely helping them when they need it the most. People do need an expert to help them at that point, when water is coming in their building and preventing them from functioning. It ranks high on their crisis level.”

Adapting to a Changing World

Bill and Billy Cole believe the company has thrived by staying on the leading edge — and not the bleeding edge — of change in the industry. “We have always kept an eye toward the future,” notes Bill. “We don’t always want to be the first — let someone else work the bugs out — but we are never far behind.”

The Coles point to three examples of key technological advancements over the years that benefitted the company: embracing single-ply membranes, the early adoption of computers, and taking a leading role in roof-related renewable energy.

The demand for green roofs has surged in the Baltimore and D.C. markets, and Cole Roofing adapted to help customers meet their needs.

“The biggest change during my time was the introduction of single-ply membranes,” Bill says. “We always treated single ply as a separate division because in our opinion the skill set was so different. Retraining our steep roofers to be single-ply roofers was a great move for the guys and the company.”

While some companies abandoned built-up roofing entirely, Cole Roofing’s approach kept BUR as a viable part of the company’s portfolio. “Built-up roofing never went away from Cole Roofing,” Bill says. “As a result of that, we were able to use our single-ply division to grow the company. We never gave up on built-up roofing. It has stood the test of time.”

Bill readily admits that adding computers benefitted the business, but he was not fond of the idea at first. The company introduced computers to the accounting department, and it snowballed from there. “We fought that change like almost every other contractor I know,” Bill says. “Once we got into that world, it was wonderful. Eventually they put a computer on my desk and I became the spread sheet king. For a ten-year period, it really gave us a leg up on the competition.”

Under Billy’s leadership, the company has focused on further upgrading its computer capabilities. Billy also spearheaded a program to focus on living roofs and renewable energy, including photovoltaics.

“Historically, I saw where my grandfather and father felt it was important that if there was a reliable, trustworthy product that got introduced into the roofing universe, we needed to be able to provide that for our customers,” Billy says. “In the early 2000s, vegetative roofs started to pop up, and that made sense to us. We believed there was a way to do it that would maintain the integrity of the roof and still provide some ancillary benefits.”

Aided by legislation in the Baltimore and D.C. markets promoting storm water management, the green roof market surged. “That opened our eyes to the concept of using the roof as a platform — as something other than the roof being just an umbrella for your building,” Billy recalls. “Once I learned about solar and understood the economics and the return, that made me gravitate toward the idea of building small power plants on top of people’s buildings.”

A Culture of Safety

For all of the company’s accomplishments, there is one that stands above the rest, according to the Coles: the development of a comprehensive safety and loss prevention program.

“Cole was a leader in introducing real safety to the roofing industry,” Bill says. “It all started when I met an insurance consultant named Ben Tyler in the late 70s. He convinced me that we should be partners with our insurance companies, not adversaries. I put together a subcommittee of field employees and supervisors, and with guidance from Ben we built a comprehensive loss control program.”

The subcommittee developed two manuals — a company handbook and a safety handbook — and the experience changed the company. “It was an eye-opener, but we saw results,” Bill says. “We’ve been told by the insurance companies that we have dealt with over the years our experience mod was much lower than any other roofers that they knew.”

Cole Roofing was asked to give a presentation about its loss control program at the NRCA convention in the mid 80s. “I got to know some of my competitors, and I began to share some of the stuff we were doing,” Bill remembers. “People asked us to share our program with them, and we freely did that. A lot of companies are probably still running a version of the Cole Roofing safety program today.”

Cole Roofing now employs a full-time loss control manager and two quality control inspectors. “We all put safety first and provide support, training, and accountability to the field team,” Billy says. “The field team has a culture of brotherhood. They all look out for one another and are encouraged to hold each other accountable, regardless of rank, to be safe and follow the rules. We start with focusing on getting everyone back to their family every day; compliance is a byproduct.”

Family Matters

Since announcing the 100th anniversary, the Coles have been overwhelmed by the outpouring of support from former employees and competitors alike. Bill chalks his company’s successful track record to “keeping it simple.” He also points to a company culture that emphasizes a strong work ethic and a commitment to its employees.

“Somewhere along the line, my dad made it clear to me that our biggest asset in our company was its employees,” Bill says. “Running a family business is not easy. We’ve had our trials and tribulations. I think the answer for us is that we have always treated our employees as family, which better prepares us to deal with our own family.”

For Billy, summing up the formula for the company’s success is simple: “We put our integrity first.”

Versatile Adhesive Goes on 60 Percent Faster, Flashes Off Quickly

The new AeroWeb Low-VOC Aerosol Contact Adhesive/Primer from Mule-Hide Products Co. was designed to boost productivity. According to the manufacturer, the product delivers aggressive adhesion and a quick drying time while going on as much as 60 percent faster than traditional roller-applied adhesives.

The new adhesive can be used in a wide variety of applications, including adhering standard TPO and standard EPDM membranes to horizontal and vertical surfaces; adhering fleece back membranes to vertical surfaces; enhancing the bond between Mule-Hide F5 Air & Vapor Barrier and various substrates; and priming unexposed asphalt prior to applying Mule-Hide Helix Low-Rise Adhesive for insulation attachment.

AeroWeb’s low-VOC (volatile organic compound), methylene chloride-free formula provides powerful adhesion and a quick drying time in a wide range of temperatures, helping contractors avoid weather-related delays. It can be applied as an adhesive or primer in ambient temperatures as low as 25 degrees Fahrenheit.

Fast, even aerosol application saves crews time while also increasing the coverage rate. Applied using a self-contained spray system, AeroWeb goes on up to 60 percent faster than traditional roller-applied adhesives. The web-like spray pattern also means that the adhesive must be applied to just 75 percent of the surface, versus 100 percent coverage with roller-applied adhesives.

A short tack time and long application window further boost crew productivity. AeroWeb flashes off in less than five minutes, so crews aren’t kept waiting. AeroWeb then remains sticky longer, enabling crews to work with larger sections of membrane.

According to the company, setup is minimal and clean-up of tools and surfaces is fast and easy using UN-TACK safe solvent or mineral spirits. AeroWeb complies with VOC-related regulations in all 50 states. It is sold in #40 cylinders filled with 30 pounds of adhesive. One cylinder typically covers 1,000 square feet when used as a contact adhesive.

LEARN MORE

Visit: www.mulehide.com

Call: (800) 786-1492

Developing Roof Systems That Prevent Energy Loss

A fully-adhered membrane will prevent fluttering and minimize energy loss. Photos: Hutchinson Design Group

Several millennia ago, early man — and the wife and kids — decided that life in a cave was a little dark, damp and confining, and started thinking about a better place to live. This led, eventually, to the need for a roof. Sod was the obvious first choice for a roofing material — abundant supply, close at hand, pretty simple to install, providing good insulation — but not very waterproof and very prone to catching fire in dry weather. Whether that caveman knew he had installed the first “green roof” is unknown.

Fast-forward to the multiple choices that we now have to shelter ourselves and the structures where we work, learn, shop and perform hundreds of other activities. In some ways, the challenges are the same as they were thousands of years ago: keep the occupants dry and comfortable and protect the systems in the building, although those systems are vastly more complex than they were for our ancestor emerging from his cave. A few other things have changed, as well, including the cost of energy for heating, cooling and running building systems. The challenge today is still to keep a building and its occupants protected from the outside elements. But an equally important challenge, given rising energy costs, is to keep energy expenses from literally going through the roof.

Insulation should be installed in multiple layers with the joints staggered.

Roofing contractors are meeting this challenge by paying increased attention to places in a roofing system that might allow penetration of air, either escaping from the inside or penetrating from the outside. To get an update on state-of-the art thinking, we talked to one of the most knowledge people who study this problem.

André Desjarlais is the Program Manager of the Building Envelopes Research Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. He has spent the majority of his professional career “developing novel building envelope technologies and assessing their market viability.” Much of his recent focus has been on developing systems that will prevent energy loss. Roof color has been extensively discussed related to energy use, with general agreement that reflective roofs save energy in warm to hot climates, and dark membranes are the most economical choice in cool to cold climates. However, there are a broad variety of other factors that influence the efficiency of a roofing system.

Proper installation of the insulation is key to meeting code requirements and preventing air leakage.

For instance, referring to low-slope roofing, Desjarlais points out that adequate insulation, defined by recent building codes, is essential to ensure an effective roofing system. “If we are in a jurisdiction that has adopted the most recent versions of the energy code, IECC 2015, we’ve really done a good job of increasing our insulation levels. Hooray for us — we have finally acknowledged that energy is important and we are mandating reasonable amounts of insulation to be put in commercial roofing.” Experts also note that it is important to install insulation in multiple layers and stagger the insulation joint. Studies have shown that up to 10 percent of the insulation’s R-Value is lost due to joints in the insulation.

Assuming the roof color is appropriate to the specific climate where it is being used, and insulation levels meet the latest codes, then other potential energy losses, specifically air flow or air leakage, become important. Desjarlais says the connection between the membrane and the perimeter of the building requires special attention. “How do we attach the membrane to the perimeter of the building and how do we make that connection continuous with the air barrier system of the walls?” Desjarlais says it is critical to avoid creating a path or paths for air to flow around the membrane and into the perimeter. “We need to have a continuous air barrier system, so the issue is how do you connect the wall and the roof system together?” He points out that this task can be most challenging during a retrofit to replace the roof since the parameters of the job may not include repair on the adjacent walls. Nonetheless, the connection still needs to be made securely.

The connection between the membrane and the perimeter of the building requires special attention. There should be no voids in the insulation at the perimeter.

It’s also important, Desjarlais continues, to note that there are several ways for air to either penetrate or escape from a building. “Air leakage” refers to air that starts on one side of the roof and gets to the other side, so it can start from the inside of the building and work its way outdoors, or start from the outside of the building and work its way in. Either way, there is energy loss.

Another kind of energy loss is “air intrusion.” This occurs when air that starts inside the building works its way through the roofing system but doesn’t make it to the outside, instead looping back to the interior. This is likely to be a problem when single-ply membranes are mechanically attached. When wind flows over the surface of the roof and the membrane billows slightly, it creates a void, and that void needs to be filled. The air that fills the void is coming from the interior of the building. So as the roof flutters, it is pumping air into and out of the roofing system. The air can also be carrying moisture that can condense under the roofing membrane.

If you are in a cold climate, the warm air from the interior of the building is chilled by its contact with the cold roofing membrane; if it is summer, the air becomes warmer. Either way, the air needs to be reconditioned when it returns to the interior of the building, driving up energy costs. [Click here, for a video showing the impact of “fluttering” on a roofing system, and the preferred alternative of a fully adhered system.

If fluttering is a potential problem, Desjarlais says, some kind of control should be put on the interior side of the roof, to make it hard for the air to flow to the underside of the membrane. This also extends the service life of the roof, preventing the wear and tear on the roofing membrane that can occur with fluttering.

There’s no doubt that creating an energy-efficient roofing system demands an investment in time and resources. But some currently available roofing membranes are setting new records for durability: EPDM, for instance, if properly maintained and installed, is projected to last up to 40 years. A well-designed, well-installed roofing system that prevents energy loss over four decades could provide invaluable protection against rising energy costs and a volatile energy market.

About the Author: Louisa Hart is the director of communications for the Washington-based EPDM Roofing Association (ERA). For more information, visit www.epdmroofs.org.

Back to the Future

As the calendar flips to mark the start of a new year, it is traditionally a good time to take a step back and contemplate the future. This often means focusing on setting goals — both for yourself and for your business. 

That topic must have been top of mind for many of the authors who contributed to this issue, as the articles can serve as a road map when planning for the year ahead. 

This issue is chock full of great business management advice, beginning with personnel. In her column, business consultant Diane Helbig urges business owners to think of their business like a football team, making sure the right people are in the right positions. 

Once the lineup is set, the team needs systems in place to guarantee success. Caroline Trautman points out that proper record-keeping procedures can be the key to prevailing in a dispute, and she offers tips on procedures to safeguard your company. 

Success also hinges on finding new business, so marketing is always essential. Heidi J. Ellsworth and Karen L. Edwards detail the importance of developing an overall marketing plan — and outline ways to get started. 

Others tackled the task of identifying potential problems facing the industry. Jared Blum believes Congress and extreme weather will pose the biggest challenges to the roofing industry in 2019. Tom Hutchinson looks at roof failures in new construction using metal studs, while Justin Koscher points to more robust building codes as a valuable tool to protect communities from severe weather events — and help them bounce back. Trent Cotney explores the jobsite of the future — which is already here, in the form of high-tech tools including geofencing, building information modeling (BIM) and smart contracts. The same technology that helps people count their steps can now help companies determine who is on the jobsite, record their work, calculate their pay and automatically trigger the next task to be performed. It’s a Brave New World. 

There will be lots of new technology to explore at this year’s International Roofing Expo in Nashville, and I hope to see you there. It’s a great place to network and hone the strategies you are working on to help improve your business. 

There might not be any products there to help me with my annual goal to lose some weight, but at least I have Josie the Wonder Dog to make sure I get around the block a few times every day.

Here’s wishing that 2019 brings you much happiness and success. 

Understanding the New OSHA Regulations for Fixed Ladders

As of November 19,2018, the U.S. Department of Labor’s Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) implemented new requirements for fixed ladders on buildings. Understanding these new ladder regulations can be confusing, and you can spend a great deal of time referencing the standard interpretations pages on the OSHA website and still not find the answers you need. 

In this article, we will be referencing the OSHA fixed ladder rules found under Occupational Health and Safety Standards, Subpart D, Standard 1910.28, “Duty to Have Fall Protection and Falling Object Protection.” We will address some of the most frequently asked questions about the regulations for fixed ladders and include some tips and links to other resources for more information. 

What has OSHA changed?

The first and primary change is the phasing out of cages on fixed ladders. Many see this as a step forward for ladder safety. The reality is that cages offer little in the way of fall protection. In fact, they can increasethe risk of injury during a fall. 

Should we order our new ladder with a cage or not?

Under the new rules, cages are not required or recommended for any new ladder installation. We will get deeper into what this means for existing ladders later in this article.

The next question is if OSHA takes away cages, how are they planning to protect people from falls? This is accomplished using a personal fall arrest system (PFAS) or ladder safety system. These come in wide variety of designs. 

Three primary types are:

1. Bolt-on cable systems (with a cable grab fall arrester)

2. Track systems (with a climbing trolley)

3. Top-mounted self-retracting lifelines

Of course, each type has its advantages and disadvantages. The key is that each must meet the minimum OSHA requirements outlined in section 1926.502(d) of the OSHA codes. 

When is a PFAS Required?

Under the new regulations, a ladder over 24 feet high will require a personal fall arrest system or ladder safety system. You can choose any PFAS provided it meets the OSHA requirements in section 1926.502(d).

Please note: A ladder that is less than 24 feet high does not require a fall arrest system of any sort. 

What about landing platforms?

Multi-section ladders with a climb of 24 feet or more require rest points. These are meant to protect climbers as they ascend. Previously, a fixed ladder with a cage required a landing platform at a maximum interval of 30 feet.

The new regulations change this requirement dramatically. Fixed ladders without cages must now have a landing platform at maximum intervals of 150 feet. Ladders with cages must now have a landing platform at maximum intervals of 50 feet. 

How do the new rules affect existing ladders?

Under the new rules, the modification of an existing ladder or replacement of a ladder section requires that the modified or replaced section be equipped with a fall arrest system. 

By November 18, 2036, allladders 24 feet or higher must be retrofitted with a PFAS or ladder safety system.

Here’s the confusing part: Will all existing ladders with cages have to be replaced, or at least have the cages removed? No.The existing caged ladder can stay. But as outlined above, a fall arrest system of some type will have to be retrofitted. 

In such cases, the cage must not interfere with whatever fall arrest system is installed. Choosing the right type fall arrest is critical in these retrofit situations.

What questions should I ask then choosing a fall arrest system?

While the fall arrest systems themselves are not that complicated, the burden often falls on the purchaser to try to figure out all the parts and pieces needed to make their ladder OSHA compliant. 

It’s not uncommon to select a fall arrest system, only to find out the product or that the accessories needed to make it compliant might be discontinued or out of stock. This leads to a list of questions that you need to ask prior to picking a fall arrest system:

· Will this system work with my ladder and the height of my climb?

· What is the system’s load capacity? 

· Will the system allow for only one or for multiple climbers? How many?

· What is the true product cost? You need to gather information on the cost of not only the base components, but any accessories needed to make the system OSHA compliant, such as harnesses, cable grabs, trolleys, carabiners, etc. 

· Is the system, and all its accessories, readily available?

· Will replacement parts be available in the future?

Where can I turn for more information about ladder regulations? 

Reputable manufacturers and suppliers of ladders and fall protection equipment should have experienced personnel on hand that can help you navigate the new OSHA regulations. The OSHA website includes the regulations cited above, as well as a Q and A section that covers fixed ladders (https://www.osha.gov/walking-working-surfaces/faq.html). Contractors can also contact their area OSHA representative for assistance. 

Other OSHA ladder resources available online include:  https://www.osha.gov/stopfalls/trainingresources.html  and https://www.osha.gov/dcsp/alliances/alliance_products.html#Ladder.

The American Ladder Safety Institute also provides an online ladder safety training resource: https://www.laddersafetytraining.org/

About the author: Chris Lafferty is a sales and marketing associate with Design Components Inc., a full-service provider of fixed ladders and fall protection accessories. For more information, visit www.designcomponents.com