Contemporary Materials Are Used to Preserve a Historically Significant 1889 House

In my capacity as a historic preservation contractor and consultant, I am often afforded the opportunity to become involved in exciting and challenging projects. Recently, my firm was awarded the contract to restore the clay tile roof turrets at Boston’s Longy School of Music’s Zabriskie House. Now part of Bard College, Longy School’s Zabriskie House is actually the historic Edwin H. Abbot House with a sympathetically designed addition built in the 1980s. The deteriorated condition of the original house’s turrets, as well as lead-coated copper gutter linings and masonry dormers, had attracted the attention of the Cambridge Historic Commission, and a commitment to the proper restoration of these systems was struck between the commission, building owner and a private donor.

The hipped roof turret on the building’s primary façade was in need of serious attention.

The hipped roof turret on the building’s primary façade was in need of serious attention.

BUILDING HISTORY

Before I can specify historically appropriate treatments, I need to don my consultant’s cap and dig into the history of a building to best understand its evolution. Developing the background story will typically answer questions and fill in the blanks when examining traditional building systems. An 1890 newspaper clipping held by the Cambridge Historic Commission re- ports that “[t]he stately home of Mr. Abbot, with its walled-in grounds, on the site of the old Arsenal, promises to be the most costly private dwelling in the city.” An examination of records held by the Massachusetts Historical Commission and from the Library of Congress’ Historic American Buildings Survey reveals that the firm of Longfellow, Alden & Harlow designed the Richardsonian Romanesque portion of the building and that Norcross Brothers Contractors and Builders was the builder of record.

Alexander Wadsworth Longfellow Jr. (of Longfellow, Alden & Harlow) was the nephew of the famous poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and an important figure in U.S. architectural history. After graduating from Harvard University in 1876, he studied architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, after which he worked as a senior draftsman in Henry Hobson Richardson’s office. After Richardson’s death in 1886, Longfellow partnered with Frank Ellis Alden and Alfred Branch Harlow to found the firm of Longfellow, Alden & Harlow. With offices in Boston and Pittsburgh, the firm designed many important buildings, including the Carnegie Library in Pittsburgh and the City Hall in Cambridge.

Norcross Brothers Contractors and Builders was a prominent 19th century American construction company, especially noted for its work, mostly in stone, for the architectural firms of Henry Hobson Richardson and McKim, Mead & White. Much of the value of the Norcross Brothers to architectural firms derived from Orlando Norcross’ engineering skill. Although largely self- taught, he had developed the skills needed to solve the vast engineering problems brought to him by his clients. For example, the size of the dome at the Rhode Island Capitol was expanded very late in the design process, perhaps even after construction had begun, so that it would be larger than the one just completed by Cass Gilbert for the Minnesota Capitol. Norcross was able to execute the new design.

BUILDING STYLE

The Edwin Abbot House is an interesting interpretation of the Richardsonian Romanesque style. Whereas the great majority of such buildings feature rusticated, pink Milford granite in an ashlar pattern, trimmed with East Longmeadow brownstone, Longfellow created a unique spin for Mr. Abbot. Although the building is trimmed with brownstone, the field of the walls features coursed Weymouth granite of slightly varying heights. The motif of orange, brown and golden hues of the stone is continued in the brick wall surrounding the property.

Scaffolding was erected that would make the otherwise dangerous, heavy nature of the work safe and manageable.

Scaffolding was erected that would make the otherwise dangerous, heavy nature of the work safe and manageable.

The roof is covered in a flat, square orange-red clay tile. Richardsonian Romanesque buildings are almost exclusively roofed in clay tile; Monson black slate; Granville, N.Y., red slate; or some combination thereof. It should be noted that because their need for stone was outpacing the supply, Norcross Brothers eventually acquired its own quarries in Connecticut, Georgia, Maine, Massachusetts and New York.

The roof framing system of steel and terra-cotta blocks is relatively rare but makes perfect sense when considered in context with the latest flooring technologies of the era. A network of steel beams was bolted together to form the rafters, hips and ridges of the frame. Across each is welded rows of double angle irons (or inverted T beams). Within these channels, in beds of Portland cement, the terra-cotta block was laid. The tile was then fastened directly to the blocks with steel nails. Because of the ferrous nature of the fasteners, the normal passage of moisture vapor caused the nails to rust and expand slightly, anchoring them securely in place. Whether this element of the design was intentional or simply fortunate happenstance, the result made for a long-lasting roof.

What doesn’t last forever in traditional slate and clay tile roofing systems is the sheet-metal flashing assemblies. Over the years, there must have been numerous failures, which led to the decision to remove the clay tiles from the broad fields of the roof and replace them with red asphalt shingles in the 1980s. Confronted with the dilemma of securing the shingles to the terra-cotta substrate, a decision was made to sheathe the roof with plywood. Holes were punched through the blocks and toggles used to fasten the plywood to the roof. In an area where the asphalt shingles were removed, more than 50 percent of the plywood exhibited varying degrees of rot caused by the normal passage of vapor from the interior spaces.

Fortunately, the turrets had survived the renovations from 30 years before. A conical turret in the rear and an eight-sided hip-roofed turret on the north side needed only repairs which, while extensive, did not require addressing issues with the substrate. The 16-sided turret on the primary façade of the building was in poor condition. Over the years, prior “repairs” included the use of non-matching tiles, red roofing cement, tar, caulk and even red slate. A scaffold was erected to allow safe, unfettered access to the entire turret and the process of removing the tile began. Care was taken to conserve as many tiles as possible for use in repairing the previously described turrets.

As the clay-tile roof covering was removed, the materials of the substrate were revealed and conditions were assessed.

As the clay-tile roof covering was removed, the materials of the substrate were revealed and conditions were assessed.

The substrate was examined closely and, save for thousands of tiny craters created by the original nails, found to be sound. A new system had to be devised that could be attached to the terra-cotta blocks and allow for the replacement tiles to be securely fastened, as well as resist the damaging forces of escaping moisture vapor. Cement board, comprised of 90 percent Portland cement and ground sand, was fastened to the blocks with ceramic-coated masonry screws. The entire turret was then covered with a self-adhering membrane. The replacement tiles were carefully matched and sourced from a salvage deal- er in Illinois and secured with stain- less-steel fasteners. The flat tiles, no longer manufactured new, are referred to as “Cambridge” tiles for their prevalence on the roofs of great homes and institutional buildings in and around Cambridge.

CONTEMPORARY UPDATES

Although I typically advocate for the retainage of all historic fabric when preserving and restoring traditional building systems, there are exceptions. In the case of the Abbot House roof, we encountered “modern” technologies that pointed us toward contemporary means and methods. Rusting steel nails in the terra-cotta block were brilliant for initial installation but seemed ill conceived for a second-go-round. Instead, using non-ferrous fasteners and a new substrate that is impervious to moisture infiltration will guarantee the turret’s new service life for the next 125 years or more.

ROOF MATERIALS

Self-adhering Membrane: Grace Ice & Water Shield
Masonry Anchors: Tapcon
Cement Board: James Hardie
Stainless-steel Roofing Nails: Grip Rite
Replacement Tiles: Renaissance Roofing Inc.

PHOTOS: Ward Hamilton

Help Homeowners Understand the Quality Proposition of a Tile Roof

Buying a home is the largest purchase most people ever make. Buyers work intensely to identify their needs and wants, assess the individual benefits of various choices and evaluate the long-term financial return to ensure they make a quality decision. Once living in that new home, kitchen remodels and reroofing can be the largest expenses faced by homeowners.

 In addition to increasing curb appeal, modern tile roofing systems and accessories offer an opportunity to improve the energy efficiency of a home.

In addition to increasing curb appeal, modern tile roofing systems and accessories offer an opportunity to improve the energy efficiency of
a home.

We all have firsthand, daily experience with our kitchen. We know what we like and what we don’t. Advertisements showing features and benefits of new appliances, more spacious cabinets and better lighting are appealing. Learning and planning for a new kitchen is fun and exciting. We know we will use it every day and we can show it off to our friends. We choose to do a kitchen remodel.

Reroofing is different. The process usually starts with a surprise—a roof leak a repairman fails to resolve. Then a second attempt, maybe a third, followed by an explanation that the system has reached the end of its useful and serviceable life. Reroofing becomes necessary to preserve the integrity of the home. It’s not fun and it’s not by choice. Compared to new stainless-steel appliances, soft-close drawers and a built-in wine cooler, it’s not exciting.

With little understanding of modern roofing, the first (and often only) question asked is, “How much is it going to cost?” If lowest initial cost was the only criteria for a roof, we would all have blue tarps overhead.

The true cost of roofing is defined by the life-cycle cost, which includes consideration of the initial cost, life expectancy, potential energy savings and potential insurance discounts.

A quality tile roof installation will set a home apart from neighboring homes now and will be a great investment to help the home garner the best sale price later. This is where a knowledgeable contractor can help a homeowner identify his or her needs and wants, assess the benefits of various choices and calculate the value of the given system.

1. IDENTIFY THE HOMEOWNER’S NEEDS AND WANTS

Residential roofing is a functional part of the building envelope. Its primary purpose is to protect the home and its contents from the elements. Residential roofing is also a largely visible part of a home’s curb appeal. A tile roof will increase the curb appeal of a house when compared to similar homes with less substantial roofing materials.

Concrete and clay roof tiles’ resistance to weathering, hail, high winds and UV means that look of quality will be consistent from the day the roof is installed until the day it helps the homeowner get the best return on his/her original investment by enhancing the home’s curb appeal when the house is sold. Without the excitement of center islands and granite counter- tops, the homeowner needs help to be informed about options and benefits a tile roof can provide.

2. ASSESS THE BENEFITS OF VARIOUS CHOICES

In addition to increasing curb appeal, modern tile roofing systems and accessories offer an opportunity to improve the energy efficiency of a home. The inherent insulation properties created by tile’s high thermal mass can be enhanced with above-sheathing ventilation, or ASV. These raised batten systems can “… offer a significant 50 percent reduction in the heat penetrating the conditioned space compared to direct nailed roof systems that are in direct contact with the roof deck,” says Dr. William Miller, Ph.D., P.E., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn.

The energy savings of ASV is recognized by the California Energy Commission, Sacramento, and included in the Title 24 Energy Code revisions for reroofing and alterations. (Learn more about ASV in “Details”, March/April 2015 issue, page 79.)

PHOTOS: Boral Roofing Products

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Swing Tape and Layout Methods Make Tile Layout Easy

When I see a home with a tile roof, my first thought is, “Nice roof”. A roof goes from “nice” to “Wow, that roof is spectacular!” when the installer pays attention to the details. Some details that make a difference are appropriate flashings, or chimney, skylight and wall metal work that is consistent and does not detract from the aesthetic look of the roof. However, nothing conveys the knowledge and skill of a craftsman more than crisp, clean, straight lines of tile, row after row.

Nothing conveys the knowledge and skill of a craftsman more than crisp, clean, straight lines of tile, row after row.  PHOTO: ROOFWERKS INC., RALEIGH, N.C.

Nothing conveys the knowledge and skill of a craftsman more than crisp, clean, straight lines of tile, row after row. PHOTO: ROOFWERKS INC., RALEIGH, N.C.

Consistent row spacing (exposure) is aesthetically more appealing. It requires dividing the space between the top and bottom of the roof by the number of rows while avoiding a short course at the ridge. Using long division and 1/8- inch increments from a tape measure is one way to achieve this goal. However, that’s a method that challenges my calculator, let alone eager installers who just want to start pounding nails. They may believe it’s easier to deal with the ridge when they get there! It’s no wonder new installers can be intimidated by the layout stage of a tile roof installation. Even experienced installers may miss opportunities to minimize cuts, increase efficiency and achieve that “perfect look” we all admire.

WHAT IS LAYOUT?

Unless precluded by a specific manufacturer’s design, proper clay and concrete tile installation requires a 3-inch minimum overlap. That means a typical 17-inch-long concrete tile has a “maximum exposure” of 14 inches. If the goal is to space the rows evenly, we must first determine the location of the eave course and ridge course. For example, if we find the space between the eave and ridge courses is 140 inches, we can have 10 rows set at the maximum exposure of 14 inches. Perfect!

But what if the distance is only 135 inches? Setting nine rows at 14 inches will require us to cut 5 inches off of our top row. Cutting the tile would remove the fastener holes and tile lugs and make the top course uniquely short, taking away from a precision aesthetic. Most tiles have an “adjustable headlap”, meaning the overlap can be increased. If we set each of the 10 rows at 13 1/2 inches, we would absorb the extra 5 inches evenly over the entire slope with an extra 1/2-inch overlap per row. Row spacing would be consistent; fastener holes and lugs intact; and we would not have to cut tile, drill new holes and throw away the scraps.

The math is not always as easy as an extra 5 inches divided by 10 rows. Eighths and sixteenths don’t work well in long division. The TRI/WSRCA Concrete and Clay Roof Tile Installation Manual, from the Edmonds, Wash.-based Tile Roofing Institute and Morgan Hill, Calif.-based Western States Roofing Contractors Association has a Quick Reference Chart on page 27. It shows proper row spacing for sample eave- to ridge-row measurements. You may find situations where the chart is helpful.

HORIZONTAL LAYOUT USING THE SWING TAPE METHOD

ILLUSTRATION: TRI/WSRCA CONCRETE AND CLAY ROOF TILE INSTALLATION MANUAL

ILLUSTRATION: TRI/WSRCA CONCRETE AND CLAY ROOF TILE INSTALLATION MANUAL


Craftsmen develop “tricks of the trade” that make complicated tasks simple, their work easier or the finished product better. The “Swing Tape Method” does all three.

To avoid the math and use the Swing Tape Method, installers mark their measuring tape at the maximum exposure of tile they are using. Continuing with the example of a 17-inch tile and a 14-inch maximum exposure, the tape will be marked at 14, 28, 42, 56 inches, etc. Using the 135-inch eave- to ridge-course distance in the previous scenario, the installer would place the tip of the tape at the eave-row chalk line and run upslope to find the top-row chalk line at 135 inches. Seeing his tape is marked at 140 inches, the installer would swing his tape in an arc to the left or right until the 140-inch mark aligns with the top-row chalk line. Although the tape is marked in 14-inch increments, the now diagonal lay of the tape has shortened the distance of each horizontal row to 13 1/2 inches. The Swing Tape Method arrived at the same conclusion as the previous arithmetic. The installer marks the underlayment with chalk or a crayon next to each 14-inch increment on the tape measure. He repeats the same process at the other end of the slope and then chalks horizontal lines along the new markings on the underlayment.

Using a tape measure with this method requires marking each row onto the underlayment. This only should be done with chalk or a crayon. Scarring the underlayment with a nail or screwdriver can lead to premature failure of the underlayment.

A modern advancement to the Swing Tape Method uses Layout Tape instead of a marked tape measure. Layout Tape is a paper roll marked with red arrows highlighting the maximum exposure for the tile being used. In this example, the arrows would be at 14-inch intervals. Using the same process as with a marked tape measure, the installer can secure the Layout Tape, placing a red arrow on the top of the eave-row chalk line, then unroll the tape upslope to the top-row chalk line. Using the same 135-inch eave- to ridge-course example, the installer will find a red arrow 5 inches above the top-row chalk line. He will swing the tape to the left or right until the red arrow lines up with the top-row chalk line. The red arrows become the targets for the horizontal chalk lines. Because the Layout Tape is left in place, the installer avoids the step of marking each and every row on the underlayment.

PICTURE PERFECT

Of course not all roof slopes are simple rectangles. Some roof designs are quite complicated and as installers we have to play the hand we are dealt. The Swing Tape Method can help you make the best of challenging situations by allowing you to virtually try out different layout options. If a slope has multiple ridgelines, you can set the tape to the most beneficial location. This may reduce your cutwork or put a short course in the least visible location. On larger sections, you may choose to adjust the row spacing to better accommodate ridgelines, headwalls or dormers. Be aware that midslope adjustment of exposure can result in a change to the diagonal line of the tile sidelaps but does not affect function.

Using the Swing Tape Method with Layout Tape or a marked tape measure appropriate for the tile being used will ensure proper exposure. It will also reduce cutting and increase your efficiency while laying the foundation for a picture- perfect installation.

SWING TAPE METHOD STEPS

1 Determine eave-course placement (consider eave closure, gutter, desired overhang) and snap a line to place head of the tile or top of the battens if battens are to be used.
2 Determine top-row placement (consider ridge riser board, ventilation, etc.) and snap a line to place head of the tile or top of the battens if battens are to be used.
3 Using Layout Tape or a marked tape measure, place an arrow or mark at the eave-course line. Measure straight to the ridgeline. Swing the tape to the left or right until an arrow or mark aligns with the top-row chalk line.
4 If you are using Layout Tape, fasten the tape. If you are using a marked tape measure, you must mark the underlayment at each mark on the tape measure.
5 Repeat this process at the other end of the roof. Snap lines between the arrows or marks on the underlayment.

Insulation Can Act as Standalone Underlayment

Environmentally Safe Products Inc.’s Therma Sheet roofing underlayment has been certified by the International Code Council Evaluation Service.

Environmentally Safe Products Inc.’s Therma Sheet roofing underlayment has been certified by the International Code Council Evaluation Service.

Environmentally Safe Products Inc.’s Therma Sheet roofing underlayment has been certified by the International Code Council Evaluation Service. The designation means Therma Sheet meets the code requirements of a standalone roofing underlayment for the building industry. Previously, code required roofers to install Therma Sheet over a layer of felt paper or another underlayment. Therma Sheet insulation is constructed of 99 percent pure polished aluminum facings, heat laminated to a closed-cell polyethylene foam core. This patented process makes Therma Sheet a thermal and moisture barrier under metal roofing, stone-coated steel, concrete, clay tile and more.

Metal Resembles Clay and Wood

Presidio Metal Roofing from CertainTeed Corp. replicates the appearance of natural clay tile and wood shake.

Presidio Metal Roofing from CertainTeed Corp. replicates the appearance of natural clay tile and wood shake.


Presidio Metal Roofing from CertainTeed Corp. replicates the appearance of natural clay tile and wood shake. The high-performance, aesthetically pleasing steel alloy panels feature a patented anti-corrosive coating with cool roof technology. ENERGY STAR-qualified, Presidio is manufactured with up to 50 percent recycled material and is 100 percent recyclable when removed. Its solar-reflective, fade-resistant surface can significantly lower roof temperature, decreasing the amount of heat transferred into a home. The lightweight product, which does not require battens, contains overlaps that conceal the joints. Presidio resists winds exceeding 110 mph, is Class IV impact-resistant-rated and can be installed to achieve a Class-A fire rating.

Clay Tile Roofing Protects a Subdivision’s Clubhouse from the Hot Phoenix Sun while Providing an Old World Look

Located in the Sonoran Desert southeast of Phoenix, the Encanterra Country Club subdivision offers upscale living in houses built by Walnut, Calif.-based Shea Homes and surrounding an 18-hole golf course designed by Tom Lehman. The centerpiece of this vibrant community, however, is the 60,000-square-foot country club known as La Casa, The Club at Encanterra.

The centerpiece of the Encanterra subdivision in Phoenix is the 60,000-square-foot country club known as La Casa, The Club at Encanterra.

The centerpiece of the Encanterra subdivision in Phoenix is the 60,000-square-foot country club known as La Casa, The Club at Encanterra.

Designed to keep the community’s members active and entertained, La Casa, The Club at Encanterra contains four restaurants, a full-service spa, fitness center and three swimming pools. The club features Mediterranean-style architecture to essentially be an extension of the attractive homes in the subdivision.

To achieve a rustic, Old World appearance, Shea Homes specified a two-piece clay tile roof installed in mud set, accented with copper flashings; custom-fabricated ornamental details; and a spray-foam system on the low-slope roof areas. Only a roofing contractor with the experience and capabilities to do all facets would suffice.

Phoenix-based Century Roofing Inc., which has been in business since 1991, has a long history of commercial and custom residential projects. With crews experienced in installing all types of tile, as well as its own metal fabrication shop, the contracting company was chosen to roof the club as it was being built.

Hustling for the Job

Steve Schwoerer, president of Century Roofing, knows what it takes to hustle and land large jobs, like La Casa, the Club at Encanterra. Knowing the project was going to be a landmark building in the valley attracted him to it. “We got it off the permit list, pursued it, bid on it and landed it, although not quite so cut and dry,” he says. “We have a lot of custom-home
experience and in Phoenix that means clay tile roof experience, so it fit in perfectly with our abilities.”

Originally, the club’s designer specified a different type of clay tile than what was actually installed on the roof. However, Schwoerer invited Irvine, Calif.-based Boral Roofing to come up with a color match and submit a quote for its tile to be installed on the project. “Boral had their plant manager fly into Phoenix to look at the roofing on the existing guard house that Shea Homes was trying to match,” Schwoerer recalls. “Boral then formulated a custom-blended tile and shipped the tile to Phoenix so a mock-up could be done for the architect’s approval, which they received.”

In addition to its curb appeal, the tile offered other benefits. Manufactured from naturally occurring geologic material (59 percent of which is recycled content), Boral clay tiles have received Cradle to Cradle Gold certification from the Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute, San Francisco. The certification program assesses products in five categories: material health, material reutilization, renewable energy and carbon management, water stewardship and social fairness. The tile product is wind, hail and fire resistant, as well as considered a cool roof, meaning it reflects heat from the sun, which reduces the need for air conditioning and provides savings on energy bills.

To achieve a rustic, Old World appearance, Shea Homes specified a two-piece clay tile roof installed in mud set, accented with copper flashings

To achieve a rustic, Old World appearance, Shea Homes specified a two-piece clay tile roof installed in mud set, accented with copper flashings

Working in Phases

The roofing work was completed in phases as La Casa, The Club at Encanterra was being built. “Anytime you do a project of this size, the general contractor has scheduling demands that add to the difficulty, especially when you’re working in stages and
they want you out there as it’s being built rather than all at once,” Schwoerer states. “Their version of what’s roof-ready versus what’s actually roof-ready is one of many things that causes a roofing contractor stress!”

Century Roofing’s five-man crew began by installing the spray-foam roof on the low-slope portions of the building, which compose 130 squares of the total roof area. Although spray-foam roofs in Arizona typically are 1-inch thick, the club’s roof is 2-inches thick to achieve additional R-value. The foam was sprayed directly onto the wood deck and two base coats were applied before the final topcoat, which features a #9 crushed marble cast into the wet topcoat by hand.

PHOTOS: US TILE BY BORAL

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Boral Roofing Supports Charitable Organizations

Boral Roofing LLC, a provider of clay and concrete roof tile, is proud to support three charitable organizations in the expansion of the William Fry Drop-in Center, which serves homeless and at-risk youth in Southern Nevada. Nevada Partnership for Homeless Youth (NPHY), HomeAid Southern Nevada (HASN) and Nevada Women’s Philanthropy (NWP) have joined forces to complete a 2,600-square-foot facility expansion that broke ground Aug. 13. Boral Roofing has donated concrete roof tile for the facility through the company’s participation in HomeAid Southern Nevada, whose mission is to help build new lives for Southern Nevada’s homeless through housing and community outreach.

The expansion of the William Fry Drop-in Center, which served 5,000 cases in 2013, will increase the Nevada Partnership for Homeless Youth’s capacity for annual visits by 40%. The organization seeks to eliminate homelessness among Nevada’s youth population and to provide those it serves with opportunities for a quality future. NPHY is the only youth service provider in the state with a continuum of care extending from street outreach and 24-hour crisis intervention services to a full-time drop-in center and independent living program.

“Boral Roofing is proud to participate in such an important community project with HomeAid Southern Nevada,” said Stephenie Ireland, Boral Roofing’s Nevada Area Sales Manager and Board Member of HomeAid Southern Nevada. “The Nevada Partnership for Homeless Youth provides a vital service for the betterment of this community and deserves the support of the building industry.”

The tile donated to the project is Saxony Split Shake tile, which recreates the aesthetic of hand-hewn shakes whose benefits include superb performance and durability, low maintenance, energy efficiency and fire resistance. Cooper Roofing & Solar, a HomeAid Southern Nevada building partner, will complete the roof tile installation. Construction of the facility expansion is anticipated to be complete in October.

“We have had the great fortune to have Boral Roofing not only as a national HomeAid America sponsor, but as a generous, active member of our local Board of Directors,” said Caitlin Shea, executive director of HomeAid Southern Nevada. “We are so grateful for the Boral Roofing donation to this project. Because of this generosity and support, we are able to help Nevada Partnership for Homeless Youth double their facility space and help 40% more homeless and at-risk youth in our community.”

The 2,600-square-foot expansion brings the facility to a total of 4,000 square feet and includes the conversion of the facility’s existing administrative offices into youth service areas and a new kitchen, designed not only to serve the daily nutritional needs of the youth, but also allowing room for group learning lessons. The expansion will more than double the size of the existing center, and will also include a computer lab and staff office space, basketball court, gym, art and music rooms, and additional private areas for in-taking clients and tutoring.

Tile Roofing: Closed Valleys with Low-profile Tile

Batten extensions are installed on standard tile W valley metal.

Photo 1: Batten extensions are installed on standard tile W valley metal.

A common failure point on steep-slope roof systems is at valleys. Often, aging material, improper fastening, lack of maintenance and ice dams make valleys vulnerable. A common cause of valley troubles with tile roofing occurs when flat tiles are used in areas where closed valleys are preferred and a simple installation requirement is missed.

The Tile Roof Institute (TRI) Concrete and Clay Tile Installation Manual for Moderate Climate Regions allows for open (flashing exposed) and closed (tiles meet over flashing) valley installations. Installers develop a preference based on their experience with the local climate. Contractors also consider job-specific environmental conditions, aesthetic preferences, pitch and maintenance needs when choosing from valley-installation options.

Although there are a wide variety of flashing and installation options for valleys, one important requirement is often overlooked and can cause leaks with low-profile tile. The specification is listed on pages 48 and 49 of the installation manual: “When a flat profiled tile is installed as a ‘closed valley’, a ribbed valley metal or single crown valley metal with batten extension shall be used.”

Batten extensions are installed on standard tile W valley metal.

Click to view larger.

Unobstructed water flow in the valley flashing is critical. A flat tile installed directly onto standard valley flashing in a closed method restricts water in the valley flashing during heavy rains and may cause it to overflow. This can speed degradation of the underlayment and may cause rot in the battens and decking. A closed-valley installation can be repaired by replacing the standard tile valley flashing with the correct ribbed metal or by adding a batten extension to each row (see photo 1).

Because medium- and high-profile tiles have a natural cavity between the flashing and tile, this requirement only applies to low-profile tile. According to the TRI installation manual, the definition of a low-profile tile is, “Tiles, such as flat tile, that have a top surface rise of 1/2 inch or less.” Most tiles with a wood grain, lined or brushed surface still fall into the low-profile category and will require batten extensions or ribbed valley flashing.

An elevated batten system with ribbed valley flashing.

Photo 2: An elevated batten system with ribbed valley flashing. PHOTO: Boral Industries

When using a counter-batten system, or raised batten, the battens themselves can be extended into the valley because they are elevated on a pad or shim. In photo 2, a ribbed valley flashing and an elevated batten are used. Fasteners are not installed in/through the valley flashing.

Tile installers are craftsmen and each develops his or her own approach to valley details. Depending on the length of the valley and the tributary area, installers may flare or gradually open the width of the valley tile cut. Experienced installers may make a cut (dog ear) to the point of the tile that is overlapped by the succeeding row. Before accessory products, like ribbed valleys and batten extensions, were commercially available and before manufacturers improved the lug design, installers often removed lugs with their hammers. They developed propping and gluing skills to avoid creating a dam with their installation. Now the accessories and flashing designs make this type of installation better and easier.

Despite the variety of tiles within the low-profile category—some are flat on the back side and fastened directly to the deck, some have lugs on the back that can also utilize battens for attachment— all low-profile tile installed in a closed-valley method requires ribbed flashing or batten extensions unless precluded by manufacturer design and/or approved by the local building inspector.

An elevated batten system with ribbed valley flashing.

Click to view larger.

Because of Florida’s wind and weather extremes, TRI and the Florida Roofing, Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors Association collaborated on Florida High Wind Concrete and Clay Roof Tile Installation Manual, which also is available on TRI’s website.

PHOTOS: TILE ROOFING INSTITUTE, unless otherwise noted

Class 4 Hail-rated Tiles Expand to Texas

Boral Roofing's Barcelona Impact concrete roof tile

Boral Roofing’s Barcelona Impact concrete roof tile

Boral Roofing LLC, a provider of clay and concrete roof tile, is expanding its line of Class 4 hail rated tiles with the introduction of the high-profile Barcelona Impact concrete roof tile in the Texas market.

Barcelona Impact is a hail-resistant concrete tile that passed severe impact resistance testing in accordance with the FM 4473 standard. The tile is proven to withstand sequential 2-inch ice ball impacts at speeds up to 70 mph, fired from within five feet. Barcelona Impact roof tile is certified through the Roof Covering Impact Certification Program sponsored by Architectural Testing.

The addition of high barrel Barcelona Impact provides a complete Class 4 hail rated roof tile offering to the Texas market to complement our flat profile Country Slate Impact Class 4 product. Boral Roofing has been serving the great state of Texas with American-made tile products since 1974, and the expansion of the Class 4 hail rated tile offering further shows this long-standing commitment to the market.

With this performance certification and recognition, Texas homeowners can have even greater peace of mind in their homes and may obtain potential insurance cost savings by selecting a participating insurance company and requesting that their roofing contractor verify that Boral Roofing¹s Class 4 concrete tile was installed. All Boral Roofing tile is covered by a Limited Lifetime, Fully Transferable, Non-Prorated Concrete Product Warranty.

A specialized color portfolio of the new high barrel Barcelona Impact Class 4 tile is based on extensive market feedback from Texas customers. The new colors include a range of beautiful earth tone blends with Buckskin, Charcoal Brown Blend, Lexington Blend and Salerno Clay Blend.

Tile Roofing’s Cool Colors Meet California’s Title 24

Boral Roofing LLC is launching more than 30 new cool colors in California

Boral Roofing LLC is launching more than 30 new cool colors in California.

Boral Roofing LLC, a provider of clay and concrete roof tile, is launching more than 30 new cool colors in California, ideal for new construction and reroof applications. Boral Roofing is partnering with leading designers and colorists to introduce trending exterior color palettes.

Boral Roofing’s cool color range is available at no added cost to the consumer. Consumers can choose from a range of colors at a standard price. Boral Roofing leads the nation with the largest Cool Roof Rating Council tile listing and offers choice ENERGY STAR-rated colors.

With the inherent beauty and energy benefits of concrete tile, cool roof colors do not have to be white. Boral Roofing offers a vibrant selection of earth tones, terra cottas and cool greys that meet or exceed cool roof standards. These beautiful cool colors are available in a wide range of styles and textures to fit any architectural design.

Boral Roofing has been continually expanding cool roof colors to fit new trends. Cool roofing is paramount in states such as California pursuing a net zero energy building code by 2020. California Title 24 building codes are requiring increased cool roof performance in select regions that take effect on July 1, 2014.

The California Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards were established to reduce California’s energy consumption. Cool roofs are highly reflective, highly emissive roofing materials that stay cooler than a normal roof under a hot summer sun, offering homeowners considerable energy cost savings.