‘Copper in Architecture’ Webinar Scheduled for Dec. 19

The Copper Development Association (CDA) is hosting a “Copper in Architecture” webinar for design professionals on Dec. 19. Attendees have the opportunity to gain continuing education credit through the American Institute of Architects (AIA) while learning how copper, brass and bronze are used in building and construction.

The webinar, conducted in conjunction with Green CE/RBA, examines copper design basics, architectural uses, finishes and service-life. Larry Peters, CDA Project Manager & Architectural Applications Specialist, will lead the hour-long discussion.

“Copper and copper alloys are popular materials for architectural applications,” said Peters. “The webinar teaches architects how to use copper in different ways, employing proven techniques to enhance their own designs.”

The course also covers copper sources, energy efficiency, architectural design practices, common mistakes and sustainability. Recent copper projects provide examples of how copper/copper alloys are used for roofing, wall cladding and ornamental systems. A questions and answer session concludes the program.

“We want the building and construction community to know that CDA serves as a resource for architects, contractors and engineers seeking technical information and assistance on the use of copper and copper alloys,” said Peters. “This webinar provides a timely and more cost-effective way to reach design professionals who may otherwise not be able to attend a seminar in-person.”

The webinar is scheduled from 12 to 1 p.m. on December 19. Attendees qualify for one Continuing Education Unit and one Health, Safety and Wellness learning unit. Register for the Webinar.

Heyco Metals’ Blog Will Educate about Copper’s Architectural Applications

Heyco Metals of Reading, Pa., introduces Copperology, its new blog for CopperPlus, an educational resource for roofers, architects, contractors and specifiers.

Copperology.com will be used to educate readers about the benefits and architectural applications of copper and copper-clad stainless steel.

Copperology will address a wide range of educational topics relative to metal and copper roofing. Topics include “What Architects Should Know About Copper Clad Stainless Steel,” “Metal Roofs for High Winds,” and “Cost Effective Alternative to Copper Roofing.”

CopperPlus is a copper-clad stainless steel ASTM B 506-09 roofing material featuring two outer layers of 100% copper metallurgically bonded to a core of Type 430 Stainless Steel. The product was first introduced in the 1960’s, and is used in a wide range of commercial and residential roofing and architectural metal applications requiring high strength, durability and economy.

Heyco Metals, Inc. is a producer of precision rolled stainless steel and copper coil for the architectural, automotive and electronics markets.

Projects: Education

University of Virginia, Rotunda, Charlottesville

The University of Virginia was founded by Thomas Jefferson in 1819.

The University of Virginia was founded by Thomas Jefferson in 1819.

TEAM

ROOFING CONTRACTOR: W.A. Lynch Roofing, Charlottesville
ARCHITECT: John G. Waite Associates, Albany, N.Y.
JOINT-VENTURE BUILDER: Christman-Gilbane, Reston, Va., ChristmanCo.com and GilbaneCo.com
LEAD-ABATEMENT CONTRACTOR: Special Renovations Inc., Chesterfield, Va.

ROOF MATERIALS

The domed roof required about 6 tons of 20-ounce Flat-Lock copper. W.A. Lynch Roofing sheared 4,000 individual tiles to approximate dimensions in its sheet-metal shop, and a makeshift sheet-metal shop was set up on top of the scaffolding to complete the final measurements and exact cuts.

COPPER SUPPLIER: N.B. Handy Co., Lynchburg, Va.
COPPER MANUFACTURER: Hussey Copper, Leetsdale, Pa.

ROOF REPORT

The University of Virginia was founded by Thomas Jefferson in 1819. Jefferson modeled his design—presented to the university board in 1821—after the Pantheon in Rome. Although he died in 1826 while the Rotunda was still under construction, the stunning building housed the university’s library as Jefferson envisioned.

The rotunda renovation is a two-phase project, and roofing work was part of Phase 1. The roofing team believed seven months was adequate to complete the job; the university, however, requested it be complete by April 2013 so scaffolding would be removed in time for the commencement ceremony. That gave the team a four-month timeline.

The domed roof required about 6 tons of 20-ounce Flat-Lock copper.

The domed roof required about 6 tons of 20-ounce Flat-Lock copper.

Tom McGraw, executive vice president of W.A. Lynch Roofing, explains: “This was just short of impossible even if it wasn’t winter. But as a graduate of UVA, I recognized the basis of the request and agreed to it. So we doubled the manpower and went to a 10-hour day, seven-day a week schedule. We divided the roof into four equal quadrants, each separated by an expansion joint and put a crew in each area working simultaneously with the other three. We also added support personnel in our sheet-metal shop, as well as runners to keep the flow of material to the job site on schedule for the sheet-metal mechanics. In the final analysis, we made the schedule and completed our work within the owner’s request.”

The roofing project was essential because of rust on the previous terne-coated metal roof. It was determined the rust was caused by inadequate roof ventilation that created condensation on the underside of the metal roofing. Ventilation was lacking because of a Guastavino tile dome that was installed in 1895. The condensation was addressed by installing a concealed venting system at the intersections of the treads and risers at the seven steps in the roof, as well as at the top of the dome below the oculus. “Heated air has low density so it will logically rise creating natural convection,” McGraw notes. “This convection creates air movement below the roof and minimizes dead air spaces and the potential for condensation. The key to this is ensuring that you size the ‘intake’ venting similar to the ‘exhaust’ venting so that air will flow in an unrestricted fashion.”

Reroofing a dome can be a challenge, and determining how to keep the interior and its priceless valuables dry required some ingenuity. McGraw invented a tarp that he compares to a hooped skirt to keep the space watertight. The roofing crew cut trapezoidal sections of EPDM membrane and installed them from the bottom to the top of the dome. This skirt-like tarp was configured out of eight pieces at the bottom, six at the midpoint and four at the top. The maximum cut sizes for each level were determined using a computer drawing. Creating the EPDM covering in sections made the tarp easy to handle and remove. “If we seamed it all together or made it in less pieces, the guys wouldn’t have been able to lift it,” McGraw adds.

The tear-off process involved removing the painted metal panels according to lead-abatement standards; the panels were cleaned offsite to maintain the integrity and safety of the job site. A new wood deck was installed on furring over the tiles. This was covered with 30-pound roofing felt and red rosin building paper followed by the new copper roof.

Each piece of copper was tinned and folded before being installed. This process was necessary because of the lack of symmetry on the building. McGraw recalls: “Because this building is almost 200-years old, you have to recognize that not everything is as true and square as one might hope. There are seven steps that circle the base of the dome, and each tread and riser changed in height and width all the way around the building.”

This is the fourth roof for the Rotunda. The first was a tin-plate roof designed by Thomas Jefferson; the second was copper that was a replacement roof after a fire in 1895; the third roof was painted terne-coated steel from 1976; and the current roof is 20-ounce Flat-Lock copper that will be painted white. The decision to select copper was based on cost, durability and historic appearance.

Phase 2 of the project began in May, and the Rotunda will be closed for repairs until 2016. At a price of $42.5 million, utility, fire protection and mechanical upgrades will be made, as well as a Dome Room ceiling replacement and construction of a new underground service vault. The roof also will be painted white, and leaking gutters will be repaired during this phase.

PHOTOS: DAN GROGAN PHOTOGRAPHY

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Copper Development Association Offers AIA-accredited Introductory Course on Copper

The Copper Development Association (CDA) has received accreditation from the American Institute of Architects (AIA) for its introductory course on copper and its unique properties. The course, which covers mining, processing, material properties and typical uses of copper, will earn students one Learning Unit Credit from the AIA.

The course was launched as part of a new informational tool, the Copper Learning Center, that has been developed by the CDA. This virtual classroom provides students and industry professionals easy access to extensive information on copper and its many applications.

CDA has gathered information from industry experts in order to provide the most accurate information on copper usage in industry and manufacturing. The courses will be organized into concise, engaging and affordable modules that can be accessed on-demand. Future courses will be developed specifically for experienced professionals, and will focus on copper applications in building and construction, as well as sustainable energy.

“We feel that the Copper Learning Center will be a great resource for students and industry professionals alike, because it will provide an extensive, mobile-friendly and self-paced learning network,” said CDA Vice President Robert Weed.

“This learning center will continue to grow, and will provide a platform for other educational opportunities, including online webinars and access to a community of experts that can help users develop as professionals,” said Weed. “We are also working toward offering more Continuing Education credits for these courses, and will be constantly evolving the site to add even more resources for our users.”

If your organization would like to enroll multiple employees in the classes, please contact the CDA and they will work with you to establish an organizational discount. You may reach out to Kyle Sexton, Program Coordinator for CDA, at kyle.sexton@copperalliance.us.

For more information about the Copper Learning Center, watch this informational video, or click here to register for the course.

North American Copper in Architecture Award Winners Are Announced

A filling station replica designed by renowned American architect Frank Lloyd Wright, a 250-year-old windmill relocated from the Netherlands and the iconic St. Patrick’s Cathedral are among this year’s top building projects receiving a North American Copper in Architecture Award (NACIA).

A mix of 14 new and recently restored buildings in the U.S. that utilize architectural copper and copper alloys in their design are being recognized by the copper industry. The 2014 NACIA award recipients include a government statehouse, museum, two transit hubs, a historic theatre building, and many more.

“Based on the projects being awarded this year, we can see that copper continues to play an integral role in architectural and building design,” said Andy Kireta, Jr., vice president for the Copper Development Association (CDA). “Each year, the selection process becomes more difficult by the size and scope of the projects. Copper is being used in a variety of different applications for both new construction and restoration work, helping architects and developers add to a building’s longevity while preserving its past.”

The St. Patrick’s Cathedral, located in the heart of New York City and listed on the National Registry of Historic Places, is visited by more than 5 million people each year. In 2013, the 136-year-old Neo-Gothic style Roman Catholic cathedral underwent a massive restoration project, which included upgrading the cast bronze double-leaf doors and several copper architectural structures inside the cathedral.

Copper was also used to restore and preserve the 125-foot tall DeZwaan Windmill, which was built in the Netherlands in 1761 and later reassembled in Holland, Michigan in 1964. Nearly 5,000 pounds of copper, all individually cut and hemmed from 20-ounce sheet copper, was used to shingle the windmill’s mill cap and flash the tower. It is the oldest and only authentic-working Dutch windmill in North America.

Following Frank Lloyd Wright’s sketches from the 1920s, copper was used extensively to bring to life the architect’s vision for a filling station. Copper was used for the standing seam roof, as well as for the twin totems, columns, cantilevered canopies and hanging gravity gas pumps. The filling station is on display at the Pierce-Arrow Buffalo Transportation Museum in upstate New York.

The NACIA awards program was established in 2008 and promotes projects that display innovation and excellence in architectural copper applications. The awards showcase a wide range of design, detail and craftsmanship. Sponsored by industry representatives at the Copper Development Association (CDA) and the Canadian Copper & Brass Development Association (CCBDA), projects are selected across three different categories: New Construction, Renovation/Restoration and Ornamental Applications. This year’s recipients include:

New Construction:
Coastal Cohousing Community — Coastal Maine
Application: Roofing, exterior ornamental
Architect: Richard Renner | Architects
General Contractor: Wright-Ryan Homes
Sheet Metal Contractor: The Heritage Company, LLC
Landscape Architect/Planner: Terrence J. DeWan Associates

Garage — Vashon, Wash.
Application: Wall Cladding
Architect: Graypants
General Contractor: Schuchart/Dow
Structural Engineer: Swenson Say Faget

Central Corridor Light Rail Transit Civil East | Green Line — St. Paul, Minn.
Application: Roofing, Exterior Ornamental
Sheet Metal Contractor: MG McGrath Inc.
Architect: AECOM
General Contractor: Adolfson & Peterson

John W. Olver Transit Center — Greenfield, Mass.
Application: Wall Cladding
Architect: Charles Rose Architects Inc.
General Contractor: Fontaine Bros. Inc.
Sheet Metal Contractor: Steeltech
Copper Panel Engineer and Fabricator: Zahner
MEP/FP: Arup

Louisiana Sports Hall of Fame and Northwest Louisiana History Museum — Natchitoches, La.
Application: Wall Cladding
Architect: Trahan Architects
Copper Panel Manufacturer: A2MG Architectural Metal & Glass Inc.
Copper Panel Installer: F.L. Crane & Sons Inc.

North Dakota Heritage Center — Bismarck, N.D.
Application: Exterior Ornamental, Interior Ornamental
Sheet Metal Contractor: MG McGrath Inc.
Architect: HGA Architects and Engineers
General Contractor: Comstock Construction

Restoration/Renovation:
6 Harrison St. — New York
Application: Roofing and Exterior Restoration
Sheet Metal Manufacturer: B&B Sheet Metal Inc.
Installer: Skyline Restoration Inc.

Building 52 Clock Tower — Fort Leavenworth, Kan.
Application: Exterior Ornamental, Roof and Dome Restoration
Consulting Architect: Treanor Architects P.A.
Architect: GLMV Architecture
Owner: United States Army Garrison, Fort Leavenworth
Sheet Metal Contractor: Renaissance Roofing Inc.
Specialty Fabrication – Crimped Copper: Heather & Little Ltd.
General Contractor: Hydro-Tech Inc.
Structural Engineer: Dudley Williams & Associates P.A.

DeZwaan Windmill Restoration — Holland, Mich.
Application: Mill Cap Restoration
Historic Restoration Contractor: Grand River Builders
General Contractor: Elzinga & Volkers Construction Professionals
Supervising Consultant: Verbij Windmill Design & Construction

St. Patrick’s Cathedral Restoration — New York
Application: Door restoration, Exterior and Interior Ornamental
Architectural and Bronze Conservators: G & L POPIAN Inc.
Architect: Murphy Burnham & Buttrick Arch.
General Contractor: Structure Tone Inc.
Owner: Trustees of St. Patrick’s Cathedral

Tibbits Opera House Facade Restoration — Coldwater, Mich.
Application: Wall Cladding, Exterior Ornamental
Historic Restoration Contractor: Grand River Builders
Architect: Tom Roberts, AIA
General Contractor: Owen Ames Kimball
Owner: Tibbits Opera Foundation & Arts Council Inc.

Kansas Statehouse Copper Dome & Roof Replacement — Topeka, Kan.
Application: Dome and Roof Restoration
Architect: Treanor Architects P.A.
Owner: State of Kansas
General Contractor: J.E. Dunn Construction Co.
Sheet Metal Contractor- Dome: Baker Roofing Co.
Sheet Metal Contractor- Roof: MG McGrath Inc.
Specialty Fabrication – Dome: Ornametals LLC

Ornamental:
Frank Lloyd Wright Filling Station — Buffalo, N.Y.
Application: Roofing, Exterior and Interior Ornamental
Sheet Metal Contractor: Grove Roofing Services
Architect: Lauer-Manguso & Associates Architects
General Contractor: R&P Oak Hill Development
Owner: Buffalo Transportation Pierce-Arrow Museum

Basilica of the National Shrine of Mary, Help of Christians, Bronze Entry Doors — Hubertus, Wis.
Application: Doors, Exterior Ornamental
Architect: Duncan G. Stroik Architect LLC
Architectural/Ornamental Metal Fabricator: Louis Hoffmann Co.
Sculptor: Cody Swanson Sculpture

The building projects were judged by a panel of architectural and copper industry experts. Entries were evaluated based upon overall building design, integration of copper, craft of copper installation and excellence in innovation or historic restoration. To view each project, including photos and profiles, visit the CDA website.

Planning for Thermal Movement: An Essential Element of Copper Roofing Design

For centuries, copper has been used as a roofing material because of its ease of installation, adaptability to simple and unique designs, resistance to the elements and superior longevity. Copper’s warmth and beauty complements any style of building, from Gothic cathedrals to the most modern museums and private residences. Its naturally weathering surface, whether in a rich bronze tone or an elegant green patina, is a clear indication that the building owner will only accept the very best.

This detail indicates a method for terminating a copper roof at the eave. The fascia trim is bent to extend onto the roof deck to become an integral flashing apron nailed to the roof. The copper pan is secured to the apron lip to achieve vertical restraint. Horizontal movement of the copper roof sheet is accommodated by the loose-lock fold of the pan over the fascia lip. Click to view a larger version. IMAGE: <em>COPPER IN ARCHITECTURE–DESIGN HANDBOOK</em>

This detail indicates a method for terminating a copper roof at the eave. The fascia trim is bent to extend onto the roof deck to become an integral flashing apron nailed to the roof. The copper pan is secured to the apron lip to achieve vertical restraint. Horizontal movement of the copper roof sheet is accommodated by the loose-lock fold of the pan over the fascia lip. Click to view a larger version.
IMAGE: COPPER IN ARCHITECTURE–DESIGN HANDBOOK

Unfortunately, long-term performance of even the best construction materials can be compromised if the system is not designed or installed properly. For architectural sheet-metal installations, movement that occurs with changes in temperature must be considered during the design process. All metals expand when heated and contract when cooled. While this process is well understood, far too many contractors ignore thermal movement during system design or installation. Ultimately, this can lead to failure of the roofing and flashing system, causing extreme damage to the building. The Copper in Architecture–Design Handbook, which is published by the Copper Development Association (CDA) and available online as a free download, provides examples of how to accommodate for thermal movement of copper systems.

Calculating for the potential thermal movement of sheet metal is easy. Simply multiply a metal’s coefficient of thermal expansion by the metal’s expected temperature change by the length of the piece. Remember: It’s not the air temperature we’re considering; it’s the temperature of the metal. Anyone who’s touched a metal roof or the top of their car in the summer knows it gets significantly hotter than the air!

An example based on a 10-footlong piece of copper:

  • 10 feet (typical flashing piece length) x 0.0000098 per degree F (copper’s coefficient of thermal expansion) x 200 degrees F (possible metal temperature change from coldest winter night to hottest summer day) x 12 inches per foot = 0.24 inch. In this case, the calculated movement is a little less than 1/4 inch.

Remember, the coefficient of thermal expansion depends on the type of metal you are using. Aluminum expands and contracts more than copper, and most steels move less. Series 300 alloy stainless steels are very similar to copper in movement, or expansion/ contraction rate. Naturally, temperature change is dependent on building location and exposure to the elements. Many professionals feel comfortable calculating the design movement with a temperature change in the 175 to 200 degree F range, but it’s the project architect or engineer’s responsibility to determine if this is adequate.

Modern rollforming equipment allows contractors and manufacturers to make very long panels, so potential total movement is even more significant.

Let’s investigate one type of common flashing design—in this case, at the eave, which is relatively simple but can easily be installed incorrectly:

  • Based on the previous formula, with roof panels that are 20-feet long and installed at a temperature between the hottest day and coldest night: 20 feet x 0.0000098 per degree F x 200 degrees F x 12 inches per foot = 0.47 inch.

Having one of the largest copper roofs in the country, the historic Kingswood High School, Cranford, Mich., recently underwent a massive $14 million roof-restoration project. The copper-clad roof is comprised of batten seams on the upper slopes, interior gutter with internal rainwater conductors, and standing- and flat-seam panels on the eaves. An embossed copper fascia and copper soffit panels complete the system. PHOTO: QUINN EVANS ARCHITECTS

Having one of the largest copper roofs in the country, the historic Kingswood High School, Cranford, Mich., recently underwent a massive $14 million roof-restoration project. The copper-clad roof is comprised of batten seams on the upper slopes, interior gutter with internal rainwater conductors, and standing- and flat-seam panels on the eaves. An embossed
copper fascia and copper soffit panels complete the system.
PHOTO: QUINN EVANS ARCHITECTS

Because we’re installing mid-way in the temperature range and 0.47 inch is so close to 1/2 inch, dimension “A” can be 1/4 inch (one half the total potential movement). Naturally, the hem of the roof panel’s “loose lock” must coordinate with the length of the eave flashing to ensure the two are still engaged when the roof panels are fully expanded. While most contractors form eave flashings properly, some ignore the thermal movement gap “A” during installation, forcing panels to move fully onto the flashing. This eliminates the gap. When temperatures drop, the panels can’t contract, adding stress to the roofing system.

Through the years, countless thermal cycles and resulting stresses caused by expansion and contraction can take their toll. In the long run, something will fail. In some cases, work hardening of the metal can occur, causing it to crack or tear. In other cases, fasteners, such as those used to attach cleats, work back and forth, ultimately pulling them out of the substrate.

It’s easy, however, to avoid these problems. To ensure maximum performance of the roofing system, just follow the recommended design principles; understand how the different pieces of the system interact; and don’t cut corners. With a time-proven quality material like copper, proper workmanship and attention to detail can create a beautiful roof that could last the life of the building.

Learn More
For more information about architectural copper and roofing systems, visit the Copper Development Association’s website.