Project Profiles: Hospitality & Entertainment

B.O.B., Grand Rapids, Mich.

Roof Materials

The double-sided green wall surrounds guests with nature and provides fresh ingredients for the food they enjoy.

The double-sided green wall surrounds guests with nature and provides fresh ingredients for the food they enjoy.

The B.O.B.’s 900-square-foot Sky Patio was completed in August 2015 when its signature green wall was installed. The distinctive double-sided green wall surrounds guests with nature and provides fresh ingredients for the food they enjoy.

“Our living wall on the Sky Patio is a vivid symbol of our commitment to sustainability and support of the local environments where our restaurants are located,” says Alice Jasper, director of sustainability, the Gilmore Collection. “It greens up the exterior and interior of the rooftop patio, contributing to the beautification of downtown, making the patio more inviting from the street below and enhancing the dining experience of our guests.”

The two-sided green wall totals 608 square feet. Three exterior sections (48 inches in height) are attached to the outside of the fencing that surrounds the patio. Facing out to the street, these sections frame the Sky Patio on three sides with flowering annuals and perennials. There are five interior sections (45 1/2 inches in height), three on the inside of the perimeter fence, two on the back wall of the building. In addition to flowers, the interior sections include vegetables and herbs used in the kitchen.

The two-sided green wall totals 608 square feet.

The two-sided green wall totals 608 square feet.

“Local sourcing of ingredients is one of our main sustainable hospitality practices,” says Barbie Smith, the Gilmore Collection’s gardener. “With the green wall at the B.O.B., we grow ingredients right near the tables where our guests dine. You cannot get more local than that.”

“What chef wouldn’t want a garden with fresh herbs and produce right in their restaurant? A green wall makes it practical,” adds Mick Rickerd, chef at Bobarino’s. “We utilize the herbs in all our everyday dishes and the vegetables, like Swiss chard and rainbow carrots, in daily features. Our mixology team incorporates fresh basil, mint, lemongrass and thyme into special summer cocktails.”

Green Wall Manufacturer: LiveWall

Roof Report

The B.O.B. is the Gilmore Collection’s most ambitious project, and it exemplifies the company’s commitment to sustainability. The B.O.B. is an acronym for Big Old Building; the 70,000-square-foot, 4-story, red brick building was constructed in 1903 as a grocery warehouse. It stood vacant for decades before the Gilmore Collection saved it from demolition and began its transformation into a landmark hospitality destination in downtown Grand Rapids. The B.O.B. offers multiple venues, including bars, restaurants, comedy and nightclubs, as well as the rooftop Sky Patio, which is accessible through Bobarino’s restaurant on the second floor.

Photos: LiveWall

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A Historic Mountain Home Gets a Modern Roof to Resist the Elements

The owners of a historic home in Evergreen, Colorado, made a stone-coated metal shake roof system a key part of their renovation project.

The owners of a historic home in Evergreen, Colorado, made a stone-coated metal shake roof system a key part of their renovation project.

In the Colorado Rocky Mountains just west of Denver lies a town called Evergreen. At an elevation of more than 7,000 feet, the community of about 10,000 people is awash in the beauty and serenity of the mountains while still being close to booming metro Denver and all its urban attractions.

It’s easy to see why many would consider Evergreen a perfect place to call home. For Jay Jackson, a local resident who grew up in Evergreen, there were plenty of reasons to stay. The views and the fresh mountain air are hard to walk away from. Even sweeter for Jackson was the fact that the historic house he had long considered his favorite in Evergreen went up for sale, and he was able to buy it and make it his own.

The house was a classic and a cornerstone to the history of the town. Its design hearkened back to Evergreen’s roots as a popular resort town in the 1920s and 1930s. The house was built next to the luxury Troutsdale Hotel, which was a magnet for high-end guests in the old days.

Although beautifully designed and filled with history, the house definitely needed some work. Still, Jackson and his wife, Corinne, really wanted to be respectful to its original intent while bringing it up to modern living standards.

Expert Help

The roof was a major part of the renovation that needed to take place on the house. The original wood shake roof had begun to warp and was showing some leaks. The Jacksons knew it needed to be replaced, but they wanted to do it in a way that is respectful to the home’s legacy and history.

To tackle a project of this magnitude, the Jacksons turned to Denver-based Horn Brothers Roofing, a full-service roofing company that specializes in roofing systems for homes of all sizes, as well as commercial buildings, restaurants, churches and HOAs. The firm does a lot of work in the mountain communities near Denver and was given a convincing referral by someone close to the owners.

“We were contacted by the homeowners because we had a great reputation in the Evergreen area and had installed a stone-coated steel roof on the owner’s parents’ house several years prior,” recalls Matthew Williams, territory sales with Horn Brothers Roofing. “The parents were extremely pleased with their roof, so we got the call.”

Fire and Ice

Living in the mountains means dealing with all manner of elements, from wildly changing temperatures; high winds; and the harsh, UV-filled sunlight found at high elevations. For example, having a steep-slope roof at this elevation means controlling snow and ice buildup is vital. An ice and water shield was used over the entire roof. But the element that was perhaps most prominent on the mind of the Jacksons was fire.

The stone-coated metal roofing system is designed to give the appearance of wood shake but has a Class A fire rating, a 2 1/2-inch hailstone warranty and a 120-mph wind warranty.

The stone-coated metal roofing system is designed to give the appearance of wood shake but has a Class A fire rating, a 2 1/2-inch hailstone warranty and a 120-mph wind warranty.

Wildfires are a scary reality in the mountains, and the fact that the home’s remote location makes it difficult for firefighters to access was definitely on the minds of the Jacksons and the renovation team. This is multiplied by the fact that Jackson had actually worked as a wild land and structural firefighter. “The homeowner is a fire captain and the home has a very narrow bridge for access, so a Class A fire rating was vitally important,” Williams says. “Access for emergency vehicles is limited and the location in the mountains makes the home susceptible to wildfires.”

Through firsthand experience, Jackson knew the damage that wildfires can wreak on wood shake shingles. A Canyon Shake stone-coated metal roofing system was chosen to stand up to the elements and protect against fire. This type of roof gives the rustic appearance of wood shake but has a Class A fire rating, a 2 1/2-inch hailstone warranty and a 120-mph wind warranty.

Photos: Heather Lyons Coffman

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NRCA Releases 2015-16 Market Survey

NRCA has released its 2015-16 market survey, providing information about overall sales-volume trends in the roofing industry, roofing experiences, material usage and regional breakdowns. It is an important tool to measure the scope of the U.S. roofing industry, and the data provides a glimpse into which roof systems are trending in the low- and steep-slope roofing markets.

This year’s survey reports sales volumes for 2015 and 2016 projections averaged between $8 million and almost $9 million, respectively, and revealed a near-steady ratio of low- to steep-slope sales of 74 percent to 26 percent.

For low-slope roofs, TPO remains the market leader with a 40 percent share of the new construction market and 30 percent of the reroofing market for 2015. Asphalt shingles continue to dominate the steep-slope roofing market with a 47 percent market share for new construction and a 59 percent share for reroofing.

Polyisocyanurate insulation continues to lead its sector of the market with 80 percent of new construction and 73 percent of reroofing work. In addition, roof cover board installation for 2015 was reported as 22 percent in new construction, 42 percent in reroofing tear-offs and 36 percent in re-cover projects.

NRCA’s market survey enables roofing contractors to compare their material usage with contractors in other regions and provides manufacturers and distributors with data to analyze, which can affect future business decisions.

NRCA members may download a free electronic copy of the 2016 survey.

UL-listed Smoke Vent Skylights Minimize Warehouse’s Power Consumption

Trojan Battery, a manufacturer of deep-cycle batteries, occupies a 160,000-square-foot industrial facility in Santa Fe Springs, Calif., along with several other large industrial buildings in California. Each facility consumes a significant amount of electrical power each month. By adding 100 polycarbonate dome UL-listed smoke vent skylights, Trojan Battery will be able to save upwards of 40 percent on its power consumption for its warehouse in Santa Fe Springs.

By adding 100 polycarbonate dome UL-listed smoke vent skylights, Trojan Battery will be able to save upwards of 40 percent on its power consumption for its warehouse in Santa Fe Springs, Calif.

By adding 100 polycarbonate dome UL-listed smoke vent skylights, Trojan Battery will be able to save upwards of 40 percent on its power consumption for its warehouse in Santa Fe Springs, Calif.

According to a representative of Santa Ana, Calif.-based IRC (Independent Roofing Consultants), a roofing consulting firm: “Typically, a 2 percent density of skylight units are utilized for effective energy reduction. Densities of 2.5 to 3 percent are being provided for newer buildings and being installed in conjunction with roof replacements to reduce energy costs associated with building lighting.”

The roof originally consisted of outdated skylights significantly reducing the benefits of natural lighting. New polycarbonate dome skylights and smoke vents from SKYCO Skylights allow owners to maximize the use of free daylighting. Additional benefits include 10 years against yellowing and breakage.

Aside from the energy benefits, Trojan Battery was able to reduce its safety liability. UL-listed smoke vents with polycarbonate domes not only provide ample daylighting, but they are life-saving devices. The smoke vent is designed with two thermal triggered hatches that automatically open up in the event of a fire.

Fire marshals and insurance companies recognize the benefits of a UL-listed smoke vent skylight because they allow the smoke, heat and hot gasses inside a burning warehouse to escape providing trapped workers a visible route for safe exit. They also reduce smoke damage to warehouse inventories. In many cases, insurance companies will provide a much needed break on rates when UL-listed smoke vents are added to the rooftop.

The smoke vent is designed with two thermal triggered hatches that automatically open up in the event of a fire.

The smoke vent is designed with two thermal triggered hatches that automatically open up in the event of a fire.

The reroof was performed by Highland Commercial Roofing, Baldwin Park, Calif. The commercial roofer specializes in and provided Trojan Battery headquarters with a RainShield seamless single-ply roofing system. The RainShield system, reinforced with a tough polyester mat, uses waterproofing-grade asphalts and highly reflective elastomeric acrylic surfacing to create a seamless, waterproof, highly reflective membrane providing a permanent, high-performance roofing system guaranteed not to leak for at least 20 years. The cool roof system chosen reflects more than 80 percent of the sun’s radiant heat, which can reduce a building’s cooling cost by as much as 50 percent.

With average temperatures and power costs rising, building owners and occupant are looking for new innovative ways to save money. Highland Commercial Roofing recommends a complete analysis of the skylights when owners consider reroofing their building. Replacing old, ineffective skylights at the time of reroof is the most cost effective method for the investment.

Code-mandated Thermal Insulation Thicknesses Require Raising Roof Access Door and Clerestory Sill Details

PHOTO 1: The new roof has been installed at SD 73 Middle School North and it can clearly be seen that the door and louver need to be raised. On this project, there were four such conditions.

PHOTO 1: The new roof has been installed at SD 73 Middle School North and it can clearly be seen that the door and louver need to be raised. On this project, there were four such conditions.

The most common concern I hear related to increasing insulation thickness (a result of increased thermal values of tapered insulation), especially in regard to roofing removal and replacement, is, “OMG! What about the roof access door and/or clerestory?” You can also include, for those knowledgeable enough to consider it, existing through-wall flashing systems and weeps.

I’m a bit taken aback by this concern; I have been dealing with roof access doors and clerestory sills for the past 30 years and, for the most part, have had no problems. My first thought is that roof system designers are now being forced to take these conditions seriously. This is a big deal! They just have no clue.

In the next few pages, I’ll review several possible solutions to these dilemmas, provide some detailing suggestions and give you, the designer, some confidence to make these design and detailing solutions. For the purpose of this article, I will assume reroofing scenarios where the challenge is the greatest because the conditions requiring modification are existing.

THE ACCESS DOOR

For many and perhaps most contractors who sell and, dare I say, design roofs, it is the perceived “large” expense of modifying existing conditions that is most daunting. Often, these conditions are not recognized until the door sill is several inches below the new roof sur- face. Not a good predicament. Planning for and incorporating such details into the roof system design will go a long way to minimizing costs, easing coordination and bringing less tension to a project.

PHOTO 2: The sill has been raised and new hollow metal door, frame and louver have been installed at SD 73 Middle School North. Door sill and louver sill flashing are yet to be installed, as are protective rubber roof pavers.

PHOTO 2: The sill has been raised and new hollow metal door, frame and louver have been installed at SD 73 Middle School North. Door sill and louver sill flashing are yet to be installed, as are protective rubber roof pavers.

Door access to the roof is the easiest method to access a roof. These doors are typically off a stair tower or mechanical penthouse and most often less than 12 inches above the existing roof as foresight was not often provided (see photos 1, 2 and 6 through 9). With tapered insulation thickness easily exceeding 12 inches, one can see that door sills can be issues with new roof systems and need to be considered.

Designers should first assess the condition of the door and frame, typically hollow metal. Doors and frames that are heavily rusted should not be modified and reused, but discarded, and new ones should be specified. The hardware too needs to be assessed: Are the hinges free of corrosion and distortion? Is the closure still in use or detached and hanging off the door frame? The condition of door sweeps, knobs, lockset and weather stripping should also be determined. Ninety-nine percent of the time it is prudent to replace these parts.

As the roof system design develops, the designer should start to get a feel for the thickness of insulation at the door. It is very important the designer also consider the thicknesses that vapor retarders, bead and spray-foam adhesives, cover and board and protective pavers will add. These can easily be an additional 4 inches.

PHOTO 3A: The new roofing at SD 73 Elementary North was encroaching on this clerestory sill and required that it be raised. As part of this project, the steel lintel was exposed. It was prepped, primed and painted and new through-wall flashing was installed.

PHOTO 3A: The new roofing at SD 73 Elementary North was encroaching on this clerestory sill and required that it be raised. As part of this project, the steel lintel was exposed. It was prepped, primed and painted and new through-wall flashing was installed.

Once the sill height is determined, the design of the sill, door and frame can commence. If the sill height to be raised is small—1 1/2 to 3 inches—it can often be raised with wood blocking cut to fit the hollow metal frame, flashed with the roofing membrane, metal sill flashing and a new door threshold installed, and the door and frame painted. This will, of course, require the removal of the existing threshold and door which will need to be cut down to fit and then bottom-sealed with a new metal closure (see details A and B, page 3).

When the door sill needs to be raised above 3 inches, the design and door considerations increase. Let’s consider that the door and frame is set into a masonry wall of face brick with CMU backup. Although most hollow metal doors are 7 feet 2 inches to match masonry coursing, after the modification the door may be shorter. For example, if a door is 7 feet 2 inches and you must raise the sill 5 inches, the new door and frame will need to be 6 foot 9 inches.
PHOTOS & ILLUSTRATIONS: Hutchinson Design Group Ltd.

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Spray Polyurethane Foam and Photovoltaic Roofing Systems

Spray polyurethane foam and photovoltaic systems are increasingly utilized together as
a joint solution for energy savings. With the continued push toward sustainability and growing
movements, like net-zero-energy construction, SPF and PV systems are a logical combined solution for the generation of renewable energy, the conservation of heating and cooling energy, and the elimination of the structure’s dependence on fossil-fuel-consuming electricity sources. Regardless of whether net-zero energy is the end goal, SPF and PV combined in roofing can be quite effective for many structures. Here are some considerations when looking to join these two powerful systems on the roof of a building.

ROOFTOP PV INSTALLATION TYPES FOR USE WITH SPF

Installation of PV systems on SPF roofing will inevitably create additional foot traffic. It is important to protect heavily trafficked areas with additional coating and granules or walk pads.

Installation of PV systems on SPF roofing will inevitably create additional foot traffic. It is important to protect heavily trafficked areas with additional coating and granules or walk pads.


Rooftop PV systems can vary significantly in size. Large-footprint buildings can employ PV systems rated from 50 kilowatts to 1,000 kW or larger while residential rooftop PV systems are commonly 3 kW to 5 kW.

Rooftop PV systems may be installed on racks or adhered directly to the roof surface. When looking to combine PV with SPF, it is generally not advised to adhere or place the PV panels directly onto the roof surface. Solar heat and water can accumulate between the PV and roof coating which could negatively impact coating performance. Moreover, panels applied directly to a low-slope roof will not be properly aligned with the sun to achieve optimal performance.

Non-penetrating rack systems may be placed directly on a rooftop and held in place with ballast. Racks may also be installed with penetrating supports that require flashings. Each type provides advantages and disadvantages. For example, ballasted racks may block water flow and affect drainage while penetrations require leak- and maintenance-prone flashings. SPF is unique in that it easily self-flashes around penetrating supports.

PV EXPLANATION

PV cells are the basic unit used to convert light to electricity. Many PV cells are bundled together to make a PV panel, or module. PV panels are grouped electrically to create a PV string. Depending on the system size, two or more strings are combined to create a PV array.

The dominant type of PV panel used with SPF roofing is cSi, or crystalline silicon. cSi is a typically rigid panel with a glass and metal frame and may be applied, unlike other dominant PV panel types, via rack installation methods.

A PV system includes many components in addition to the panels. Components include racks, rails, rooftop attachment devices, grounding systems, wiring and wiring harnesses, combiner boxes, inverter(s) and connection to the main electrical panel. Components may also include control modules and storage batteries for off-grid PV system installations.

ELECTRICAL SAFETY

Photovoltaic panels must be handled and maintained with caution. Electricity is produced when a single panel is exposed to light; however, because a panel is not part of a circuit, that electricity will not flow until the circuit is complete. A worker may complete the circuit by connecting the two wires from the backside of a PV panel.

When maintaining a PV system, it may become necessary at some point to disconnect or remove an individual panel from a string or an array. The whole system must be shutdown properly as a precautionary measure to prevent shocks from occurring to workers and arcing between electrical connections. This “shutdown” procedure must be followed with precision as part of a lock-out/tag-out program. This procedure is provided by the inverter manufacturer. Under no circumstances should SPF contractors ever disconnect or decommission a PV panel or system unless they are trained and qualified to do so.

HEAT BUILDUP

Photovoltaic panels convert approximately 15 to 20 percent of light to electricity, leaving the remaining unconverted energy to be released as heat. Additionally, PV panels are more effective when their temperature drops. It is for these reasons that the majority of rooftop PV systems are installed to encourage airflow under panels, which reduces the temperature of the panels, improves conversion efficiency and releases heat effectively. Photovoltaic panels installed 4 to 5 inches above the roof will not change the temperature of the roof and, instead, provide shade to the surface of that roof. This additional shade may extend the life of SPF roof coatings.

LOAD

PV panels add weight to a rooftop and this must be factored into the design and installation. Existing structures should be analyzed by a structural engineer to determine if the additional weight of the PV system is acceptable.

Rack-mounted arrays with penetrating attachments are fairly lightweight at 2 to 3 pounds per square foot, and ballasted arrays add 4 to 6 pounds per square foot. However, with the latter, more ballast is utilized at the perimeters and corners of a PV array. Thus, localized loading from ballast may reach as high as 12 to 17 pounds per square foot, which must be considered. Most SPF roofing systems have a compressive strength of 40 to 60 psi.

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MCA Offers Metal Roofing Training

The market for residential metal roofing continues to grow rapidly as homeowners are learning of its many energy-saving, aesthetic and long-lasting benefits. Contractors wanting to capitalize on this expanding metal roofing market can find in-depth educational resources about metal roofing training for existing and incoming personnel on the MCA website.

On the website, visitors will find comprehensive training in the form of a Metal Roofing Installation Manual and an optional online exam. The manual is a free download, which includes 20 chapters and hundreds of pages and illustrations to help ensure industry best practices are used when installing metal roofs. The accompanying online exam was designed to confirm that installers and contractors have a full grasp of the best practices outlined in the manual.

The exam includes tests for each different chapter with 10 questions each. A “Save and Resume” feature is enabled for the participant’s convenience. Each question addresses the various topics of metal roof installation and related accessories and includes questions pertaining to both new construction reroofing and retrofit projects. A certificate of completion is sent electronically to successful participants. The exam is available for $100 from the association’s online store accessible at www.metalconstruction.org. Unsuccessful participants may retake the exam at no additional charge.

Both are valuable resources to educate new and experienced roofing installers and can help spur contractor growth in the expanding metal roofing market.

MCA is also involved with the Metal Roofing Alliance, a great resource for residential roofing information and promotion through its national consumer marketing program.

University of Wisconsin Madison Offers Metal Roofing Continuing Education Course

Anyone involved in metal roofing design, construction, commissioning, maintenance, repair, and re-roofing can benefit by enrolling in a new 1.5 day metal roofing continuing education course offered by the University of Wisconsin-Madison December 1-2, 2016.

The informative course will be taught by Robert Haddock, director of the Metal Roof Advisory Group. Haddock has a background in the nuts and bolts of contracting, having operated one of the nation’s largest metal roofing companies. He has authored a number of training and educational curricula for various trade groups. A prolific technical author, Haddock served as a faculty member of the Roofing Industry Educational Institute and holds several US and foreign patents. He is a member of the NRCA and ASTM, as well as a lifetime honorary member of the Systems Builders Association and the Metal Construction Association.

Topics covered in the metal roofing continuing education course include:
• The History of Metal Roofing
• Metal Roofing Fundamentals
• Metal Roofing Materials
• Codes/Standards
• Panel Types, Attributes and Connections
• Roof Deck Substrates
• Common Metal Roof Accessories
• Safety Issues
• Tools and Field Operations
• Low and Steep Slope Standing Seams
• Seam Joining
• Sealants and Fasteners
• Re-Roofing/Roof Conversion with Metal
• Metal Tile and Shingle
• Snow Retention
• The Solar Metal Roof
• Maintenance

Gain insight on this ancient but fascinating field by enrolling now in this highly anticipated course. For additional course details and to enroll online, visit: epd.wisc.edu/RA01501.

Synthetic Underlayment Is Approved for New and Reroofing Applications

Summit 180 synthetic underlayment by Atlas Roofing offers many advanced benefits not available with conventional felt.

Summit 180 synthetic underlayment by Atlas Roofing offers many advanced benefits not available with conventional felt.

Roof underlayment is the last line of defense that protects a home from serious damage if a roof covering is blown off or damaged in a storm. Summit 180 synthetic underlayment by Atlas Roofing offers many advanced benefits not available with conventional felt. It is an approved underlayment for new and reroofing applications and can be used with most types of code-approved steep-slope roof coverings, including metal.

On certain roof projects, underlayment may face a long exposure time from the dry-in to the completed roof covering. Atlas developed Summit 180 with performance characteristics that ensure its reliability during extended uncovered exposure to damaging UV rays. This lightweight, extremely strong, polypropylene fabric contains UV and water-resistant coatings that allow for up to 180 days of open exposure before being covered.

Summit 180 can withstand extreme temperatures from -40 F to 240 F. Unlike conventional saturated felt, Summit 180 is not prone to wrinkling or buckling. This allows it to lie more flat, which helps a roof protect against invasion from water.

Roofing crews benefit from a textured, wrinkle-free top surface and a slip-resistant coating applied to the face and base surfaces of this underlayment. This dial coating slip resistance provides improved grip to allow safer walkability during installation.

Summit 180 synthetic underlayment exceeds ASTM D226 Type I and Type II, the standard specification for asphalt saturated felt. It has earned ASTM D6757, the inorganic shingle underlayment standard. It is also UL 790 compliant for fire resistance.

Summit 180 roof underlayment is packaged for convenience in 10 square rolls weighing approximately 30 pounds each. For more details on Atlas Roofing’s synthetic underlayment, contact an Atlas sales representative.

With Today’s ‘New Age’ Roofs, Removing All System Components May Not Always Be Required or in the Clients’ Best Interest

Years ago, reroofing design involved removing all roof-system components down to the roof deck and rebuilding a new roof system up from there.

PHOTO 1: This EPDM roof’s service has been extended for nine years and counting, approaching 30 years in-situ performance. Here, the restoration of perimeter gravel- stop flashing and lap seams, as well as detailing of roof drains, penetrations and roof curbs, is nearing completion.

PHOTO 1: This EPDM roof’s service has been extended for nine years and counting, approaching 30 years in-situ performance. Here, the restoration of perimeter gravel- stop flashing and lap seams, as well as detailing of roof drains, penetrations and roof curbs, is nearing completion.

Although that is still a viable option and often performed, the coming of age of many single-membrane roofs has altered the method of installing a new reroof system. Options now include EPDM roof restoration; removal of the roof membrane and the addition of new insulation and roof membrane; using the existing roof membrane as a vapor retarder and adding new insulation and roof membrane; removal of the roof cover and installation of new, leaving all the existing insulation in place.

When I first moved into roof-system replacement design some 35 years ago, the dominant roof systems being removed were bituminous, specifically gravel-surfaced asphaltic and coal- tar-pitch built-up roofs. As they aged, their surfaces often started to blister, crack and undulate with ridges—surfaces often unsuitable for roof recover. The bitumen often was deteriorating because of ultraviolet-light exposure; when that occurred, the deterioration of the felts was not far behind. The insulation was mostly perlite or high-density wood fiber; the amount was minimal (low thermal value) and, more often than not, flat or with very minimal slope. Drains were erratically placed, tapered insulation was not often the case and roof edges were predominately gravel stops. In the Midwest, many roof decks were cementitious wood fiber. The roof covers were often patched again and again, even as water infiltrated the system.

PHOTO 2: The re-flashing of roof curbs is an integral part of the restoration of EPDM roof membranes.

PHOTO 2: The re-flashing of roof curbs is an integral part of the restoration of EPDM roof membranes.

When replacement was necessary, the roof-edge sheet metal was removed; the entire existing roof system was removed down to the roof deck; and a new roof system was designed, often incorporating vapor retarders/temporary roofs so the removal of multiple layers of roofing could be accomplished, roof curbs raised, and enhancements of roof drains, curbs and roof edge could occur prior to the installation of the new roof cover. Tapered insulation designs be- came common; this would often require realignment of the roof drains to simplify the tapered design and installation. To accommodate the new insulation thickness, the roof edge had to be raised as did roof curbs, RTU curbs, plumbing vents and roof drains via extensions. Roof membranes changed from bituminous to those classified as “single plies”: EPDM, PVC, CPE, CSPE.

These new roof-system replacement designs resulted in superior roofs—85 percent of all the reroofs I have designed are still in place, still performing, still saving the owner money. Life cycles have moved from eight to 12 years, up to 18 to 25 years and longer. They certainly were more expensive than the original installation and, if a roof designer didn’t have a handle on costs to provide the owner with estimated costs of construction, were often shocking. But these roof systems were good for the client, economy, environment and public.

PHOTO 3: When restoring EPDM roof membranes, the removal of roof penetration flashings and installation of new with target patches will provide another 20 years of watertight protection.

PHOTO 3: When restoring EPDM roof membranes, the removal of roof penetration flashings and installation of new with target patches will provide another 20 years of watertight protection.

Over the years, codes and standards have changed, especially in the past decade, requiring increased insulation values and roof-edge sheet-metal compliance with greater attention to wind-uplift resistance. As the new millennium arrived, these “new age” roofs came of age and owners started to look at their replacement—often with increased costs stifling their budgets.

LEAN THINKING

A factor that increased the performance of many roof systems in the past 20 years was the emergence and growth of the professional roof consultant, often degreed in architecture or engineering, educated in roofing, tested and certified. These professionals brought a scientific approach to roof-system design. Raleigh, N.C.-based RCI Inc. (formerly Roof Consultants Institute) was the conduit for this increased level of knowledge, professionalism and the growth in quality roof-system design and installation.

PHOTO 4: On this roof, the existing loose-laid membrane was removed, open insulation joints filled with spray-foam insulation and new insulation added to meet current code requirements. A new 90-mil EPDM membrane was installed and existing ballast moved onto it to 10-pounds-per-square-foot coverage.

PHOTO 4: On this roof, the existing loose-laid membrane was removed, open insulation joints filled with spray-foam insulation and new insulation added to meet current code requirements. A new 90-mil EPDM membrane was installed and existing ballast moved onto it to 10-pounds-per-square-foot coverage.

As these professionals started to examine the older “new age” roofs, those whose first responsibility was doing what was best for the client saw greater opportunity than just a costly full-roof replacement. Although many roofs today still need to be fully removed, prudent professionals see other opportunities, such as the following:

ROOF RESTORATION
EPDM membrane ages with little change in physical characteristics as opposed to its built-up roofing predecessor; therefore, EPDM membranes often can be “restored” in lieu of removing and replacing the roof. (Studies to support the lack of change in EPDM’s physical characteristics while it ages include Gish, 1992; Trial, 2004; and ERA, 2010.)

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