Roof Systems Contribute to Success of 2014 FIFA World Cup

The Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup is the king of soccer competitions, so it’s only appropriate that four of the 2014 venues are crowned with roof systems that are as strong as the competition inside the venues. Three venues feature lightweight tensile structures from Birdair and the fourth includes polycarbonate skylights from PALRAM.

Estadio Mineirão

Estadio Mineirão, built in 1965 and listed as a national monument of Brazil, underwent a three-year modernization project to prepare for hosting six of the FIFA World Cup matches.

Estadio Mineirão, built in 1965 and listed as a national monument of Brazil, underwent a three-year modernization project to prepare for hosting six of the FIFA World Cup matches.

Estadio Mineirão, built in 1965 and listed as a national monument of Brazil, underwent a three-year modernization project to prepare for hosting six of the FIFA World Cup matches. It was transformed into a modern stadium with a new tensile roofing system from Birdair. The 141,000-square-foot tensile roof was added to the concrete upper tier of the stadium to provide shelter for 70,000 spectators while meeting aesthetic, acoustic and environmental impact requirements.

Birdair fabricated and supplied TiO2-coated PTFE, a Teflon-coated woven fiberglass membrane for the facility. Taiyo Birdair do Brasil, a subsidiary of Birdair, was responsible for installing the PTFE tensile membrane. TiO2 (titanium dioxide), a non-toxic and flame-resistant coating allows fabric to break down any organic materials that settle on the membrane, such as dirt. It is capable of withstanding temperatures from -100 F to 500 F, is unaffected by UV rays, and requires less maintenance to retain its appearance due to its self-cleaning capabilities. Ultimately, this TiO2 membrane is an economic and environmentally sustainable renovation that will provide fans with much-needed comfort, as well as improve a national landmark.

Estádio Nacional

Estádio Nacional expanded its capacity from 42,200 to 70,042 to host seven World Cup matches.

Estádio Nacional expanded its capacity from 42,200 to 70,042 to host seven World Cup matches.

Estádio Nacional, originally built in 1974 and located in Brazil’s capital, also underwent major reconstruction for the World Cup, expanding its capacity from 42,200 to 70,042 to host seven World Cup matches. Birdair fabricated and supplied the PTFE fiberglass membrane, clamping and hardware for the facility. The consortium Taiyo Birdair do Brasil ­Entap ­Protende was responsible for installing the entire roof’s steel and cable structure, including the PTFE outer roof and liner membrane. The project involved building a new lower tier and retaining the upper tier with the addition of a new 920,000-square-foot double-layer suspended tensile roof.

Fonte Nova Stadium

Fonte Nova Stadium's oval-shape roof design will provide cover for 50,000 spectators during each of the six games it hosts during the tournament.

Fonte Nova Stadium’s oval-shape roof design will provide cover for 50,000 spectators during each of the six games it hosts during the tournament.

Birdair, through Taiyo Birdair do Brasil (TBB) Ltda., additionally was awarded a subcontract for the roof construction of Fonte Nova Stadium in Salvador, Brazil. The stadium is modeled on its predecessor, the Estadio Octavio Mangabeira, and features three levels of seating with a view of the magnificent Dique do Tororó. Its oval-shape roof design will provide cover for 50,000 spectators during each of the six games hosted at Fonte Nova during the tournament.

Birdair’s project role consisted of detailing, fabricating and supplying PTFE, a Teflon-coated woven fiberglass membrane that makes up the facility’s lightweight tensile roofing system. Taiyo Birdair do Brazil fully installed the PTFE membrane for the 301,399-square-foot tensile roof. The facility’s tensile roof provides natural daylighting, solar shading and minimal maintenance, as well as contributes to the unique aesthetics of the new Fonte Nova Stadium.

PTFE fiberglass membrane structures have received increased global recognition as green living is becoming more important. Upon completion, Estádio Mineirão and Estádio Nacional applied for LEED certification, which is given to projects that use less materials and increase daylighting to conserve resources and increase sustainability.

Plácido Castelo

PALRAM qualified for its second consecutive World Cup games, this time covering the Plácido Castelo stadium with SUNTUF 2-millimeter-thick roofing.

The Plácido Castelo Stadium in Fortaleza, Brazil, features SUNTUF corrugated polycarbonate.

The Plácido Castelo Stadium in Fortaleza, Brazil, is popularly known as “Castelão”, part of a local tradition to nickname popular stadiums.

The Plácido Castelo Stadium in Fortaleza, Brazil, is popularly known as “Castelão”, part of a local tradition to nickname popular stadiums. Owned by the Brazilian government and inaugurated in 1973, the stadium was revamped for the 2014 World Cup.

“The Palram Project Support Team was given the task of providing an architectural solution for the roof skylight. The proposal implemented was a 7,000-square-meter transparent front edge roofing specially designed to allow natural daylight on the pitch,” says Tal Furman, Palram chief engineer.

The solution offered by PALRAM was based on its continuing worldwide stadium roofing trend using SUNTUF transparent corrugated polycarbonate sheets, as a front edge covering, providing a perfect cost effective watertight solution.

A 7,000-square-meter transparent front edge from PALRAM was specially designed to allow natural daylight on the pitch.

A 7,000-square-meter transparent front edge was specially designed to allow natural daylight on the pitch.

For the Castelão stadium roof, PALRAM specified 9-meter single length SUNTUF corrugated polycarbonate sheets that cover the entire roof length, thus ensuring long term transparency for the skylight and reduced risk for leakage.

The Arena Castelão will host six World Cup matches, including a first round match between Brazil and Mexico and one of the quarter-finals. It was the first Brazilian Stadium to obtain the LEED certification. Since its re-inauguration, the Arena Castelão has hosted more than 50 matches of the local league and of the Brazil Cup. The stadium also hosted matches of the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup and world-class concerts from artists like Paul McCartney and Beyoncé.

As part of PALRAM preparation for the World Cup, a polycarbonate roofing solutions professional seminar was held in front of Brazil top architects, engineers and construction professionals by Mr. Michel Allouch, Palram V.P. Marketing and development. As a result of this seminar, the same solution was implemented by PALRAM project team as well at the new Palmeiras Stadium in São Paulo, although this stadium is not hosting the World Cup games.

For over 50 years, PALRAM has been a global leader in manufacturing extruded thermoplastic sheets, offering an extensive product line for consumer, architectural, construction, sign & display, and agricultural applications.

The 20th FIFA World Cup is scheduled for June 12 through July 13, 2014 in 12 different Brazil host cities.

VELUX America Study Finds Skylights Offer Energy Efficiency to Single-family Homes

Homes that depend more on skylights in combination with vertical windows to provide adequate levels of daylight tend to be more energy efficient, according to a study commissioned by VELUX America.

“A Study of the Energy Impacts of Residential Skylights in Different Climates,” prepared by Group14 Engineering, used computer models based on a 1-story, open plan, single-family home modeled under code-compliant conditions of California’s Title 24 regulations (California Energy Commission, 2008), Residential Package D. The baseline-modeled home has a maximum 20 percent window-to-floor area (with no skylights) with windows evenly distributed on all facades to achieve an average daylight factor of 5 percent.

Researchers added skylights and adjusted the amount and configuration of vertical windows to test how the model would perform in different climate zones, while giving the living space sufficient daylight to allow lights to be switched off. The study explored the effects of these configurations on the utility bills generated by the model homes in Los Angeles and Napa, California, and then expanded the models to Boston, Chicago, Denver, Dallas, Minneapolis, Orlando and Seattle, using their specific code requirements.

It found that by providing daylight from above via skylights, the total fenestration area could be reduced from a maximum 20 percent of floor area to as low as 12 percent of floor area while achieving the same baseline average of daylight factor target of five percent.

This was found to reduce annual heating and cooling energy use and costs in all but two of the 108 models with skylights that the group analyzed. Lighting savings, shading efficiencies, and increased natural ventilation attributable to skylights were not evaluated for simplicity. Further studies are planned to look into quantifying these additional efficiency contributions.
“While we have always known the intangible benefits of adding daylighting from above to homes, this study provides empirical evidence that natural light from skylights can contribute to the home’s overall energy efficiency,” said Stephan Moyon, direct of sales for VELUX America.

An in-depth discussion of the study, as part of a GreenExpo365 webinar titled “How To Reduce Energy Use By Improving Daylighting,” is available online. The full study report is available from VELUX upon request. VELUX continues to study and document the role and effectiveness of skylights in providing daylighting and passive ventilation.

VELUX America Produces Three Skylight Videos for Roofing Professionals

VELUX America has produced three informational and instructional videos, none longer than three minutes, for roofing industry professionals. Topics include skylight replacement profit potential and customer benefits, skylight selection and skylight installation. The videos feature ENERGY STAR-certified VELUX Solar Powered Fresh Air Skylights and explain the advantages of skylight replacement or new installations during scheduled roofing work from the roofer and customer perspectives. The videos also explain the 30 percent federal tax-credit eligibility for the homeowner on product and installation costs, as well as solar-powered blinds.

Touchscreen Operates Electric- and Solar-powered Skylights and Blinds

VELUX America's KLR 200 Intelligent Touch remote control

VELUX America’s KLR 200 Intelligent Touch remote control

VELUX America has introduced the KLR 200 Intelligent Touch remote control for its ENERGY STAR-certified electric- and solar-powered skylight lines to the roofing industry.

This completely redesigned touchscreen unit is powered by VELUX INTEGRA to operate VELUX electric and Solar Power Fresh Air Skylights and blinds. It is easier to program and use and comes with pre-set programs that automate commonly used functions of the skylights. The touch-sensitive screen utilizes easily understood icons and is extremely user friendly.

VELUX Solar Powered Fresh Air skylights, along with solar-powered blinds operated by the new remote, plus installation costs, are eligible for a 30 percent federal tax credit. VELUX is an ENERGY STAR partner and has been recognized as a Partner of the Year.

Clean, Quiet and Safe Glass

VELUX America has introduced “Clean, Quiet & Safe Glass” for its skylights.

VELUX America has introduced “Clean, Quiet & Safe Glass” for its skylights.

VELUX America has introduced “Clean, Quiet & Safe Glass” to the roofing industry. This laminated glass will keep ENERGY STAR-certified VELUX Solar Powered Fresh Air skylights cleaner, reduce outside noise, and take the guesswork out of interpreting local building codes for the type of glass required for out-of-reach applications.

Clean: A thin coating of titanium dioxide and silicone dioxide on the exterior surface of the laminated glass will smooth the glass and, with the help of the sun, destroy organic matter deposited on skylights over time. Then, the next time it rains, this organic matter is washed away keeping the skylight glass cleaner longer.

Quiet: Laminated glass reduces outside noise by up to 25 percent when compared to a standard double pane glass and up to 50 percent more when compared to a plastic skylight.

Safe: U.S. building codes require laminated glass be used in out-of-reach applications where any point of the glass is 12 feet above the floor of the room. VELUX Clean, Quiet & Safe glass meets or exceeds this important building code requirement nationwide and also carries a 10-year warranty against hail damage on the glass itself.

In addition to its water-shedding properties, the new glass option carries a 10-year hail warranty and is superior to regular tempered glass in U-Value, UV protection and fade protection. Beginning in 2014, it will be available on most VELUX skylights and will be the standard glass option for the VELUX Solar Powered Fresh Air skylights. The new glass option is also available in Impact, Miami-Dade, White laminated and Snowload models.

The Solar Powered Fresh Air Skylight, now standard with Clean, Quiet & Safe glass, is also a No Leak Skylight and carries the VELUX 10-year installation warranty plus 20-years on glass, 10-years on product, and 5-years on blinds and controls. The units use standard VELUX engineered flashing and energy efficient LoE3 glass. VELUX solar powered skylights, along with solar powered blinds, as well as the installation costs, are eligible for a 30 percent federal tax credit.

Roof Windows Are Operated By Hand

VELUX's GDL CABRIO roof window

VELUX’s GDL CABRIO roof window

Roof windows and skylights share common elements, including glass, wood frames, sashes and aluminum. But skylights are designed for out-of-reach applications and can be automated while roof windows are within reach and are operated by hand.

Roof windows utilize a ventilation flap that allows fresh air circulation even while the unit is closed. Roof window sashes also rotate inward for easy cleaning from the inside.

VELUX produces two types of roof windows: the deck mount GPL Top hinged model which opens to a 45-degree angle to satisfy current requirements for emergency escape and rescue, while admitting natural light and passive ventilation, and the deck mount GDL CABRIO roof window which utilizes a dual-sash operation that allows the top to open upward to 45 degrees for ventilation and the bottom to open outward to create a roof balcony. The design makes the CABRIO a “fresh air” alternative to a dormer and it can also provide emergency escape and rescue capabilities.

Both models can be fitted with blinds and screens and provide decorative flair in addition to their functional features.

Control Heat and Glare through Polycarbonate, Acrylic and Plastic Skylights

Liquisol Solar Control Paint

Liquisol Solar Control Paint

Liquisol Solar Control Paint is designed specifically for polycarbonate, acrylic and plastic skylight applications. It provides long-lasting solar control to materials and surfaces where window film cannot be used.

Liquisol’s paint line includes 4Ever, 4EverBlue, 4EverDark and 3Seasons. Each can be applied to glass, acrylic or plexiglass conservatories, skylights and sky domes to reduce heat and glare. Liquisol paints let in sunlight but reflect infrared heat while blocking more than 98 percent of harmful UV rays. This makes the indoor environment more comfortable, while lowering cooling costs and extending the life of furniture, fabrics and artwork by resisting discoloration.

Liquisol’s 3Seasons was designed for hot summer, extremely cold winter climates. This temporary paint can be easily removed and reapplied when needed, allowing excessive solar heat to be blocked most of the year while taking advantage of solar gain during winter.

Liquisol’s 4Ever, 4EverBlue and 4EverDark are permanent solar reflective paints. Each was designed to provide a choice of visible light transmissions and heat rejection. The newest of these, 4EverDark, provides extreme heat and glare protection while 4Ever lets in the most light and is optimal for applications where customers want heat and glare control combined with a maximum amount of light.

4EverBlue puts off a blue hue designed to mimic the sky, giving occupants the feeling of beautiful weather outdoors while providing an efficient solar control solution. 4EverBlue has a 57 percent Total Solar Energy Rejection.

Rooftop Alterations, Like Skylights and Roof Monitors, Can Drive Building Value and Performance

Rooftops are an immensely underutilized resource for optimizing building performance. Rooftop strategies can include painting the roof white or installing a solar reflective “cool roof” to reduce summer cooling loads; covering the roof with vegetation to improve insulation, reduce storm-water runoff and provide community spaces; and mounting solar photovoltaic or solar hot-water panels to reduce utility bills.

The multiple functions of rooftop monitors. RENDERING: FCGA Architects

The multiple functions of rooftop monitors. RENDERING: FCGA Architects

Adding daylighting and ventilation through skylights and roof monitors is a strategy with growing popularity and potential. Common sense might lead us to believe that penetrating the roof with skylights and monitors could compromise a building’s insulation and thermal performance. However, with the availability of advanced products, such as glazing, suspended film and high-performance sealants, well-designed and constructed rooftop penetrations can successfully lower energy costs and improve occupant comfort and health.

Rooftop prescriptions vary for every individual project, and a variety of factors must be considered before proceeding with construction. For example, rooftop penetrations will primarily only affect the floor directly beneath the rooftop, so single-story buildings or multistory buildings with a central atrium are ideal. When further determining which types of projects would benefit from roof penetrations, the design team must perform thorough climatic analysis, examine the existing infrastructure and occupancy conditions, and weigh all variables through cost balancing. Before diving deep into analysis, it’s important to understand different types of rooftop penetrations in this capacity and how their design and operational synergies can enhance the value and performance of a building.

Design Synergies

Traditional skylights, tubular skylights and roof monitors are the main types of rooftop daylighting/ventilation penetrations and should be considered individually because of their varying benefits. Traditional skylights offer natural daylight, which can improve the health and productivity of building occupants. Tubular skylights capture sunlight from a small, clear dome on the roof; pass the light through a highly reflective tube; and diffuse the light through a lens into the building. Because of their high efficacy and smaller penetration area, tubular skylights have better thermal performance and are more suitable for harsher climates than traditional skylights.

Roof monitors are vertical fenestrations built into raised structures atop the roof. If the monitors are operational, they contribute exponential building-performance enhancements beyond the other penetration types, including stack-effect ventilation. The figure above depicts the many functions of roof monitors: natural daylighting, ventilation, passive heating and cooling, glare reduction and structural support for rooftop solar-power systems.

As with skylights, roof monitors help disperse natural daylight more evenly and completely throughout a room than windows on the side of a building. When paired with thermal mass, such as concrete or water, vertical glazing on the roof helps capture heat from the sun to offset the building’s heating load.

Glare presents a big problem for worker productivity in buildings; careful design of roof monitors and ceiling systems can help distribute the light and reduce contrast glare. Finally, monitors can be topped with angled roofing that matches the optimal sun exposure angle for solar panels mounted atop.

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