New Restrictions May Affect Products Contractors Commonly Stock and Install

The roofing industry is familiar with changes brought on decades ago by international treaties that limited and then banned the use of products containing substances with measurable ozone depletion potential (ODP) — a relative measure of a substance’s contribution to the degradation of the ozone layer. The global effort to reduce emissions of ODP substances required manufacturers in the United States and Canada to phase out the use of CFCs and HCFCs in various products (example: polyisocyanurate insulation) and replace them with non-ODP alternatives. In certain instances, ODP substances were replaced by alternatives that had measurably high contributions to global warming, measured as global warming potential (GWP).

Today, under renewed efforts to combat the climate change impacts associated with the manufacture and use of products from insulation to refrigeration, U.S. state governments as well as the Government of Canada have implemented restrictions on the use of products containing certain high-GWP substances. For the roofing industry, familiar products that can contain high-GWP substances include foam adhesives, spray polyurethane foam (SPF), and extruded polystyrene (XPS) foam. In jurisdictions that restrict the use of high-GWP substances, contractors should be aware of the potential impacts that these new restrictions may have on products they commonly stock and install.

U.S and Canada: Development of HFC Policies

The effort to restrict the use of HFCs in formulations used by building material manufacturers (as well as other sectors) started in the mid-2010s as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed regulations under the Clean Air Act’s Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program. EPA banned the use of HFCs in the affected roofing products, as well as other common end uses, by issuing SNAP Rule 20 in 2015 and Rule 21 in 2016. However, both rules were challenged and partially vacated by the U.S. Court of Appeals – D.C. Circuit.

As a result of the Court’s decision on SNAP Rules 20 and 21, there is no federal requirement for manufacturers to transition away from HFC-based formulations for roofing products. Instead, states are leading the transition to the use of low-GWP blowing agent substitutes to formulate roofing products. The states have organized the U.S. Climate Alliance to coordinate on a broad set of climate related issues – including restricting the use of HFCs. (Information on the U.S. Climate Alliance is available at http://www.usclimatealliance.org/.) The Alliance has developed a model rule to guide the development of HFC restrictions at the state the level. This model rule has helped states move quickly to adopt rules to restrict HFC uses.

For example, California, New Jersey, Vermont, and Washington have enacted legislation similar to what the EPA originally promulgated prohibiting the use of HFC substances in roofing products, such as foam insulation and foam adhesives and sealants. As of mid-March, at least 10 other states are considering legislation or regulations to restrict the use of HFCs.

For the Canadian roofing market, Environment and Climate Change Canada have enacted nation-wide restrictions on the use of HFC substances. As of January 1, 2021, no plastic or rigid foam product can use an HFC substance or HFC blend with a GWP greater than 150. The effect of these restrictions is that manufacturers using common HFCs will need to reformulate with new technologies or blends.

Which Products Are Impacted?

Certain roofing products like foam adhesives, one-component foam sealants, and insulation are formulated using blowing agent technologies. Blowing agents provide the final product with specific physical properties such as thermal performance or are necessary to facilitate the application process for the product. A good example of the benefits that blowing agent technologies provide is closed-cell foam insulation. In closed-cell insulation products, the blowing agents are retained within the cell structure to provide increased and long-term thermal performance.

However, different products use various technologies and not all products will be impacted by the restrictions described above. For example, polyisocyanurate insulation is manufactured with pentane (or pentane blends) as its blowing agent. Pentane is a non-ODP, low-GWP substance. Therefore, polyisocyanurate insulation is not impacted by the restrictions and roofing contractors should not expect to see changes in these products as a result of any HFC regulations. (More information on polyisocyanurate insulation products is available at https://www.polyiso.org/page/Low-GWPBlowingAgentSolution.)

Spray polyurethane foam (SPF) roofing insulation is typically manufactured with HFC blends. Most SPF manufacturers have introduced new, low-GWP formulations using HFO technologies in the past several years. Roofing contractors working in states that prohibit the use of HFC-based products will need to be familiar with the available HFO-based SPF products. Similarly, low-rise foam adhesives and other foam products and sealants will be subject to the same restrictions as HFCs. (More information on spray polyurethane foam products is available at https://www.whysprayfoam.org/.)

Another common building insulation product impacted by the HFC regulations is XPS insulation, which is traditionally manufactured with HFCs. Projects that specify XPS insulation and are located within a jurisdiction that prohibits the use of HFC-based foam products will need to consult with product manufacturers to discuss the availability of low-GWP options.  

How Should Roofing Contractors Prepare?

The HFC regulations generally ban the use, sale, and installation of products that do not comply with the HFC restrictions as well as the ability to place such products into commerce. These restrictions essentially require manufacturers and product distributors to sell low-GWP formulations and require roofing contractors to ensure they are using and installing compliant products. In certain circumstances, the regulations have required some manufacturers to reformulate HFC-based products to low-GWP technology.

Roofing contractors should learn to identify products that utilize low-GWP technologies in order to ensure they are stocking and installing compliant roofing products in states with active restrictions. This will require roofing contractors to determine the answers to questions including: Where is the product being installed, and does the jurisdiction have HFC restrictions? Does the product contain HFCs? And, if yes, when was the product manufactured?

1. Install Low-GWP Products. Compliant roofing products are already available. These products include polyisocyanurate insulation as well as SPF roofing and insulation that is formulated with low-GWP technologies like HFOs. Other product manufacturers are still transitioning their product portfolios to low-GWP formulations. For the next several years, there may be SPF or foam adhesive and sealant products available in the marketplace that contain HFCs. For these products, roofing contractors should determine how to differentiate between low-GWP and HFC formulations. Product may be branded as “low-GWP” and some products will carry labels stating the product is compliant with state HFC restrictions.

2. Check Date of Manufacture. Thus far, each state with effective restrictions has included sell-through provisions that allow product manufactured prior to the restriction date to remain in commerce until they are used. Roofing contractors may still have products that use an HFC-based formulation in their supply chain. Roofing contractors that are planning to install these products in states with active restrictions should determine when the products were manufactured to ensure they can be used and installed.

3. Do Not “Import” Non-Compliant Product. Roofing contractors should closely track HFC restrictions in neighboring states. Roofing contractors that conduct business in multiple states should ensure they do not “import” non-compliant products that contain HFCs into states where their import and use is restricted.

The regulatory landscape is changing quickly. Currently, 10 states have pending legislation or regulation. The most practical recommendation for roofing contractors is to engage with their product suppliers to ensure they are aware of restrictions in the areas they conduct business.

About the authors: Justin Koscher is the president of the Polyisocyanurate Insulation Manufacturers Association (PIMA), a trade association that serves as the voice of the rigid polyisocyanurate insulation industry and a proactive advocate for safe, cost-effective, sustainable and energy-efficient construction. Stephen Wieroniey is the director at the American Chemistry Council’s Center for the Polyurethanes Industry. In his role at CPI, he also serves as the director of the Spray Foam Coalition.

Huntsman Unveils Spray Polyurethane Foam Business Name: Huntsman Building Solutions

Huntsman Corporation announced that it has branded its spray polyurethane foam (SPF) Business as Huntsman Building Solutions (HBS). HBS is a global platform within Huntsman’s Polyurethanes division.

The SPF Business was formed when Huntsman acquired North American SPF company Icynene-Lapolla in February and combined it with Demilec, which Huntsman acquired in 2018. HBS is now one of the world’s leading SPF providers and the fifth largest insulation manufacturer. Simon Baker, previously president of Demilec, and Doug Kramer, formerly president of Icynene-Lapolla, jointly lead HBS. Baker is responsible for Canada and international business and Kramer for U.S. business.

Commenting on the new name, Tony Hankins, President of Huntsman’s Polyurethanes division, said: “Integration of the two legacy companies is progressing well and the selection of the new name is an important milestone for the Business. I’m excited about the opportunities that lie ahead, notwithstanding the current challenges caused by the Covid-19 pandemic. SPF is a highly attractive growth business; we have a product offering which is second to none and our products provide significant environmental benefits — not just in terms of energy savings, as they are the most effective thermal insulants in the market; but also in terms of the upcycling of PET bottles and scrap, which are used in our TEROL polyols, a key ingredient in the production of SPF. HBS will consume significant volumes of our lower margin polymeric MDI – the other key ingredient in SPF formulations – to produce higher margin specialized SPF systems.”

For more information, visit www.huntsman.com.

Accella Performance Materials Announces New Vice President

Accella Performance Materials, a Carlisle Company, has promoted Joe Negrey to Vice President and General Manager of its Spray Polyurethane Foam (SPF) Insulation business unit. Negrey will oversee all business operations—helping to advance Accella’s commitment to bringing energy-saving, cost-efficient SPF technology to the North American and global markets.

A veteran within the polymers space, Negrey has more than two decades of process engineering, product development, sales, marketing and manufacturing experience in the polyurethane systems industry. Prior to assuming this current role, Negrey served as Vice President of Accella’s Tire Fill division where, under his leadership, the brand’s foam fill product business for the Off-the-Road tire industry grew to become the recognized international category leader.

Negrey has also served in various other capacities within the Accella brand family, and held positions as Operations Manager, Director of Operations, and Vice President of Operations. His strengths lie in his visionary leadership and strategic planning capability—and excellent team management approach. Negrey holds a bachelor’s degree in Industrial Technology from California Polytechnic State University.

For more information, visit www.accellacorp.com.

Silicone Coating Restores the Roof, Reduces Utility Costs at Mixed-Use Complex

At the Shoppes of Johnson’s Landing in Angier, North Carolina, ACC applied a high-solids silicone roof coating on the 20-year-old metal roof to seal penetrations, restore the roof, and provide a white reflective coating. Photos: All-County Contracting (ACC)

Glenn Wujcik, the owner of All-County Contracting (ACC), headquartered in Raleigh, North Carolina, has been fascinated with spray rigs since he and his brother first used one in 1979 to insulate a van with spray polyurethane foam (SPF). His company specializes in applying SPF and roof coatings on existing buildings. Lately, he’s found silicone roof coatings are making up an increasing share of his company’s workload.

“The coatings industry in general is booming right now,” Wujcik says. “A lot of the TPO and EPDM roofs are nearing the end of their service life, and instead of tearing them off, if you catch them in time, you can go over it with the silicone coating and get a new 10-year warranty. Silicones have a proven track record. When you put it on properly, it weathers really well. It has excellent elongation.”

Wujcik characterizes himself as a hands-on owner who strives to be on the site for every job. He believes there is an art as well as a science to operating a spray rig properly, and experience is crucial. “I love doing this,” he says. “I’ve been doing it for more than 30 years, my business partner’s been doing it more than 30 years, and our best sprayer has sprayed more than both of us combined. We know what we have to do, we know how long it’s going to take, and we have the right equipment. We are really good about the preparation and the application.”

Coatings and spray foam are excellent products, but only in the right situations, notes Wujcik. They should only be used on the proper substrates and applied in the right conditions. “In spraying, the most important thing is knowing when not to spray,” he says. “Right now, I’m working on a job, and for the last two days, there have been 10-20 mph winds, and I haven’t finished it yet. I told the owner, ‘I haven’t oversprayed anything yet, and I don’t want to.’ I’d rather do it right and not have any problems.”

Wujcik points to a recent project on a mixed-use building in Angier, North Carolina, to illustrate some of the benefits of a silicone roof coating. “It’s a U-shaped building with about 14,000 square feet of roof space,” Wujcik notes. “There’s a bakery, a restaurant, a pharmacy, and a doctor’s office, and there are a lot of penetrations on the roof.”

The penetrations were the site of multiple leaks. Wujcik decided to use a high-solids silicone coating, GE Enduris 3502, to prevent leaks and extend the life of the roof. The monolithic coating will seal the penetrations, and the white reflective surface will provide an additional benefit: reduced cooling bills in the summer. “Putting a white coating on it is going to reduce their energy load in the summer pretty substantially,” he says.

Applying the Coating

On this project, the first step was to pressure wash the existing roof. “That’s where most coating jobs fail — surface preparation,” Wujcik states. “Washing the roof properly is one of the most important steps.”

The high-solids silicone coating was applied to the existing standing seam metal roof. Care had to be taken to ensure all sides of the metal ribs were properly covered with the material. Photos: All-County Contracting (ACC)

The company uses 4,000 psi belt-drive power washers, so care has to be taken not to damage the roof or skylights, which are covered and marked for safety reasons. The company follows all OSHA regulations, which in most cases means setting up safety lines 6 feet from the edge, with stanchions 10 feet apart, to establish a safety perimeter.

“Safety is my number one thing,” Wujcik says, “I’ve been doing this a long time and I’ve never had a lost-time accident. I preach safety. That is absolutely the most important — and accidents are expensive.”

The next step is to apply the GE Seam Sealer at the penetrations. “When this roof was originally installed 20 years ago, they did it textbook perfect,” Wujcik notes. “Each 4-inch pipe coming though had at least 20 fasteners holding it down.”

However, over time, the rubber grommets on the fasteners can degrade, and expansion and contraction can take their toll. “We have really hot summers here, we’ve seen roofs where literally thousands of fasteners have backed out,” he says.

The seam sealer is typically applied with a brush. “Any horizontal seams, any termination bars, any penetration that goes through the roof that has a screw, we apply the seam sealer,” he says. “It goes on quite thick — at about 80 linear feet per gallon.”

After the seam sealer cures for one day, the coating is applied. Spraying flat roofs with EPDM, TPO, and PVC membranes is a fairly straightforward process, according to Wujcik. “You basically spray it just like you would spray paint a wall,” he says. “You overlap your spray pattern 50 percent. I’ve been doing it for so many years, and you get a feeling for how fast you can go.”

After the roof was power washed, the seam sealer as applied to the seams and penetrations. After it cured, two coats of the high-solids silicone product were sprayed on the roof. Photos: All-County Contracting (ACC)

A wet mil gauge is used to ensure the proper thickness. Wujcik notes the high-solids silicone formulation has very little shrinkage as it dries.  “As we’re spraying, we insert the gauge into the wet coating and it tells you how many mils you have sprayed down. In this case, we were applying to achieve 21 dry mils.”

The spray rig is set up on the ground and operated by one man, while the sprayer and the hose man are working on the roof. “It’s a minimum of a three-man crew per coating rig,” he notes. “You’re dealing with about 6,000-7,000 psi of pressure, so you need special hoses rated for at least 7,000 psi. You never want to kink them. If you busted a hose, by the time someone came down from the roof to the machine, you could pump out 20 gallons on the ground. That’s why you need a ground man.”

Flat roofs are sprayed perpendicular to the roof, but the standing seam metal roof on this project called for a different technique. “On metal roofs with high ridges, if you don’t angle your gun you’ll miss the sides of the ribs,” Wujcik points out. “You have to do it from one direction, working one way, and then turn around and do it from the other direction, working the other way. If you try to spray straight down on the roof, you’re going to miss the nooks and crannies in all of those ribs.”

The surface area of the ribs also has to be taken into account when calculating the amount of liquid that will be applied, notes Wujcik.

The final step in the process is to touch up the applications at the penetrations to ensure a clean look. On vertical surfaces including parapet walls, crews ensure the coating is applied to a uniform height. “On the last day, we take up brushes and rollers and cut in straight lines,” he says. “That really finishes the job. The detailing gives it that final touch.”

Open for Business

The active and open jobsite posed some challenges. “There were a lot of cars around the building, so we had to be very careful not to hit them with overspray,” Wujcik notes. “When you’re working on a plant, you might be able to move all of the cars to a different location, but at doctor’s offices and restaurants, you have traffic in and out of the parking lot all of the time. We can use car covers if there are a few cars there, but when they are in and out like that, it’s not practical, so you have to be very careful when you do the job.”

The job was completed in the winter, and bad weather resulted in some delays. “A job like this in the summertime would have been a weeklong project at most,” Wujcik notes. “This project took almost a month because we had an exceptionally cold winter with a lot of high winds. It took extra time, but that’s my philosophy: If it’s not the right conditions, I just won’t do it.”

The project qualified for a 10-year warranty, and when it expires ACC plans to be there to pressure wash and recoat the roof for another 10-year warranty.

“We inspect our jobs every year,” Wujcik says. He notes that annual roof inspections and routine maintenance are the simplest and most cost-effective ways to ensure the roof’s life span. Yet these steps are often neglected.

“It’s amazing that some of these multi-million-dollar companies don’t send their maintenance guys up on the roof for 10 minutes to check the drains,” he says. “If a roof has 2 inches of pine needles around the drain, the whole roof has to have 2 inches of water on it before it begins to drain. That puts tremendous, tremendous stress on a roof. Keeping your drains clear is really important.”

TEAM

Roofing Contractor: All-County Contracting (ACC), Raleigh, North Carolina

MATERIALS

Roof Coating: Enduris by GE 3502, GE Performance Coatings, www.GE.com/silicones
Seam Sealer: GE Seam Sealer, GE Performance Coatings

SPFA Speaks Out Against California DTSC Decision on Spray Polyurethane Foam

The Spray Polyurethane Foam Alliance (SPFA), the educational and technical voice of the spray polyurethane foam (SPF) industry, released a statement opposing the recent proposal by the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) to designate spray polyurethane foam products containing unreacted methylene diphenyl diisocyanates (MDI) as a listed Priority Product under the department’s controversial Safer Consumer Products Program.
 
“We are extremely disappointed with this decision to progress to the next stage of this regulatory debacle,” said Kurt Riesenberg, executive director of the SPFA. ““We know the DTSC’s spotlight on our product has been problematic from the start. The department initially based its position on numerous, unsubstantiated inaccuracies about the product without consulting or verifying those details with our industry’s leaders and through verifiable and adequate research. That resulted in a protracted, multi-year process marred by DTSC inconsistency, confusion, errors, faulty research and false application of interpretations gleaned from other technologies then applied to SPF. DTSC has failed to satisfy its own published regulatory requirements for listing under the SCP program, and failed at every stage to progress per published timelines, stretching this experimental process out years beyond their original vision.”
 
“Furthermore,” Riesenberg continued “MDI use in SPF has already been reviewed thoroughly by federal agencies that specifically address worker and public health including OSHA, NIOSH and EPA. We ultimately believe this product assessment and listing process is not only riddled with problems, but is redundant and misusing critical taxpayer dollars that are approaching a dangerous shortfall as demonstrated by the California state budget.”
 
The SPFA has long opposed the DTSC’s targeting of spray polyurethane foam. The DTSC initially identified the product in early 2014 as an initial Priority Product listing without notifying and consulting leaders within the industry for fact gathering and collaboration. This led to inaccurate information about the product being published, damaging the industry’s reputation, the SPF market in California and nationally, and threatening years of coordination and progress between industry and the California Energy Commission (CEC) Title 24 energy efficiency provisions. The DTSC, in September 2014, made corrections to many of those published inaccuracies, but continued with its product assessment process knowing that the agencies whose mission is to ensure the safety of the public and workers had already properly assessed and handled questions about methylene diphenyl diisocyanates (MDI).
 
According to the SPFA, spray polyurethane foam is a high-performance insulation material providing the highest energy efficiency performance available in the construction marketplace today. When installed in a home or commercial structure, it can reduce the energy demands of that building up to, or more than, 40 percent, which in turn dramatically decreases dependence on the use of fossil fuels for electricity (i.e. for heating and cooling homes and structures). This energy efficiency performance directly contributes to Spray Polyurethane Foam’s wide-recognition as an ideal product for use in Net Zero Energy construction and buildings. 
 
“The energy benefits of spray polyurethane foam are far reaching, positively influencing the environment and energy cost savings, while generating un-exportable highly skilled US jobs and stimulating the economy within the state of California,” added Riesenberg. “Not only that, but the state is aiming for all new residential structures to be Net Zero Energy by 2020, and all new commercial structures to be Net Zero Energy by 2030. The ability of the state to achieve these aggressive energy goals is highly dependent on builders’ access to high performing energy efficient building materials such as Spray Polyurethane Foam. Thus, the DTSC’s listing of a common component of the material as a Priority Product, directly undermines the state’s ability to achieve its own sustainability goals.”
 
“SPFA stands ready to continue discussions with DTSC and other California state agencies around productive topics of product stewardship, health, safety, performance, installer certification or other topics beneficial to California and its constituents,” said Riesenberg. “But instead we are faced with an advancing failed regulatory process, very significant associated costs to be forced upon the industry to support a long ill-defined alternative assessment process, and continued confusion throughout the state government agencies extending to customers that are relying upon the product’s performance to hit California energy and climate targets.”
 
“If the DTSC had done its homework in 2013 and 2014 instead of being unduly influenced in the background by special interest groups and SPF industry detractors that have no true interest or concern in California’s energy, climate, economic and employment landscape, I do not believe we would be having any of these conversations,” concluded Riesenberg. “Instead we could be working together to find productive ways to make California stronger, more energy efficient, and more economically robust, while keeping consumers more comfortable in higher-performing homes and buildings with lower energy bills. I still fail to see how DTSC has any option other than to accept their lessons-learned throughout this new regulatory guinea-pig process, drop the proposed listing of SPF, and begin focusing instead upon other actually-documented, high-profile, ubiquitous chemical-product combinations well-known to cause widespread adverse health impacts.”

Roof Sections of Cosmetics Manufacturing Facility Get Expert Makeover With Cold-applied System, SPF and Smoke-vent Skylights

American International Industries manufactures cosmetics at the facility, and great care had to be taken to ensure no dust or fragments would fall from above and contaminate the products. Photo courtesy of Highland Commercial Roofing.

American International Industries manufactures cosmetics at the facility, and great care had to be taken to ensure no dust or fragments would fall from above and contaminate the products. Photo courtesy of Highland Commercial Roofing.

American International Industries was faced with a conundrum. The roof diaphragm on its 1968, 210,000-square-foot, wood-frame manufacturing facility in Los Angeles had deflection caused by structural settlement, but a full roof replacement was not an option.

“The roof was built without a substantial amount of pitch to it and the plywood deck in between the main purlins had settled over time,” recalls Rick Cunningham, president of Highland Commercial Roofing in Baldwin Park, Calif. “Removing the existing roof and deck and restructuring a roof of this size to return it to its original slope was financially unfeasible.”

American International Industries contracted Ernest Orchard, owner of Irvine, Calif.-based Orchard Roofing and Waterproofing Consultants as a project consultant and owner’s representative who closely monitored the job. Orchard selected a reinforced fluid-applied roof restoration system and brought Highland Commercial Roofing into the project because of the company’s specialization with the process and its expertise in commercial flat roofing in the Southwest. (Highland Commercial Roofing has offices in the Las Vegas; Los Angeles; Oakland, Calif.; and Phoenix areas.)

American International Industries restored sections of its roof with a cold-applied system, spray polyurethane expanding foam and smoke-vent skylights. Photo courtesy of SKYCO Skylights.

American International Industries restored sections of its roof with a cold-applied system, spray polyurethane expanding foam and smoke-vent skylights. Photo courtesy of SKYCO Skylights.

According to Ernest Orchard, another critical consideration in selecting a roofing solution had to do with the activities inside the building. “American International Industries manufactures cosmetics here and we couldn’t have any dust or fragments falling from above into the product,” he says. “In addition, the installation was to take place over the winter while the facility remained operational, and we couldn’t have the building open to weather.”

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Project Profiles: Education Facilities

Maury Hall, U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md.

TEAM

Roofing Contractor: Wagner Roofing, Hyattsville, Md.
General Contractor: C.E.R. Inc., Baltimore, (410) 247-9096

The project included 34 dormers that feature double-lock standing-seam copper and fascia metal.

The project included 34 dormers that feature double-lock standing-seam copper and fascia metal.

ROOF MATERIALS

Wagner Roofing was awarded the complete replacement of all roof systems. These included an upper double-lock standing-seam copper roof system, a bullnose copper cornice transition, slate mansard, 34 dormers with double-lock standing-seam copper and fascia metal, eight copper hip metal caps and a continuous built-in gutter with decorative copper fascia. Each of the dormers also had a copper window well.

The upper standing-seam roof was removed and replaced with 24-inch-wide, 20-ounce copper coil rollformed into 1-inch-high by 21-inch-wide continuous standing-seam panels that matched the original profile. The eave bullnose, which also served as the mansard flashing, was removed and returned to Wagner Roofing’s shop where it was replicated to match the exact size and profile.

The 34 dormer roofs were replaced with 20-inch-wide, 20-ounce copper coil formed into 1-inch-high by 17-inch- wide continuous standing-seam panels. The decorative ornate fascia of the dormers was carefully removed and Wagner’s skilled craftsmen used it as a template to develop the new two-piece copper cornice to which the roof panels locked. The cheeks and face of the dormers were also re-clad with custom-fabricated 20-ounce copper.

The oversized built-in-gutter at the base of the slate mansard was removed and replaced with a new 20-ounce copper liner custom-formed and soldered onsite. The replacement included a specialty “bull-nosed” drip edge at the base of the slate and an ornate, custom-formed fascia on the exterior of the built-in gutter. The decorative copper fascia included 85 “hubcaps”, 152 “half wheels” and 14 decorative pressed-copper miters. The original hubcap and half-wheel ornaments were broken down and patterns were replicated. Each ornamental piece was hand assembled from a pattern of 14 individual pieces of 20-ounce copper before being installed at their precise original location on the new fascia. The miters were made by six different molds, taken from the original worn pieces, to stamp the design into 20-ounce sheet copper.

In all, more than 43,000 pounds of 20-ounce copper was used on the project.

Copper Manufacturer: Revere Copper Products

ROOF REPORT

Maury Hall was built in 1907 and was designed by Ernest Flagg. Flagg designed many of the buildings at the U.S. Naval Academy, including the Chapel, Bancroft Hall, Mahan Hall, the superintendent’s residence and Sampson Hall. His career was largely influenced by his studies at École des Beaux-Arts, Paris. Examples of Flagg’s Beaux-Arts influence can be found in the decorative copper adorning the built-in gutter on building designs.

Maury Hall currently houses the departments of Weapons and Systems Engineering and Electrical Engineering. The building sits in a courtyard connected to Mahan Hall and across from its design twin, Sampson Hall.

PHOTO: Joe Guido

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Spray Polyurethane Foam Locks a Roof into Place

Lapolla Industries Inc. has made available FOAM-LOK 2800-4G Spray Polyurethane Foam for roofing.

Lapolla Industries Inc. has made available FOAM-LOK 2800-4G Spray Polyurethane Foam for roofing.

Lapolla Industries Inc. has made available FOAM-LOK 2800-4G Spray Polyurethane Foam for roofing. The fourth-generation SPF eliminates ozone depletion potential and reduces global warming potential. The rigid, closed-cell SPF may be applied over most new or retrofit roofing substrates. FOAM-LOK locks every portion of the roof into place, creating a monolithic membrane and eliminating the need for mechanical fasteners. The product seals the envelope, which minimizes the escape of conditioned air and dramatically reduces the structure’s energy consumption for heating and cooling, in turn reducing energy costs over the life of the roof. The low-maintenance material also resists wind uplift and acts as a waterproofing solution.

Spray Polyurethane Foam and Photovoltaic Roofing Systems

Spray polyurethane foam and photovoltaic systems are increasingly utilized together as
a joint solution for energy savings. With the continued push toward sustainability and growing
movements, like net-zero-energy construction, SPF and PV systems are a logical combined solution for the generation of renewable energy, the conservation of heating and cooling energy, and the elimination of the structure’s dependence on fossil-fuel-consuming electricity sources. Regardless of whether net-zero energy is the end goal, SPF and PV combined in roofing can be quite effective for many structures. Here are some considerations when looking to join these two powerful systems on the roof of a building.

ROOFTOP PV INSTALLATION TYPES FOR USE WITH SPF

Installation of PV systems on SPF roofing will inevitably create additional foot traffic. It is important to protect heavily trafficked areas with additional coating and granules or walk pads.

Installation of PV systems on SPF roofing will inevitably create additional foot traffic. It is important to protect heavily trafficked areas with additional coating and granules or walk pads.


Rooftop PV systems can vary significantly in size. Large-footprint buildings can employ PV systems rated from 50 kilowatts to 1,000 kW or larger while residential rooftop PV systems are commonly 3 kW to 5 kW.

Rooftop PV systems may be installed on racks or adhered directly to the roof surface. When looking to combine PV with SPF, it is generally not advised to adhere or place the PV panels directly onto the roof surface. Solar heat and water can accumulate between the PV and roof coating which could negatively impact coating performance. Moreover, panels applied directly to a low-slope roof will not be properly aligned with the sun to achieve optimal performance.

Non-penetrating rack systems may be placed directly on a rooftop and held in place with ballast. Racks may also be installed with penetrating supports that require flashings. Each type provides advantages and disadvantages. For example, ballasted racks may block water flow and affect drainage while penetrations require leak- and maintenance-prone flashings. SPF is unique in that it easily self-flashes around penetrating supports.

PV EXPLANATION

PV cells are the basic unit used to convert light to electricity. Many PV cells are bundled together to make a PV panel, or module. PV panels are grouped electrically to create a PV string. Depending on the system size, two or more strings are combined to create a PV array.

The dominant type of PV panel used with SPF roofing is cSi, or crystalline silicon. cSi is a typically rigid panel with a glass and metal frame and may be applied, unlike other dominant PV panel types, via rack installation methods.

A PV system includes many components in addition to the panels. Components include racks, rails, rooftop attachment devices, grounding systems, wiring and wiring harnesses, combiner boxes, inverter(s) and connection to the main electrical panel. Components may also include control modules and storage batteries for off-grid PV system installations.

ELECTRICAL SAFETY

Photovoltaic panels must be handled and maintained with caution. Electricity is produced when a single panel is exposed to light; however, because a panel is not part of a circuit, that electricity will not flow until the circuit is complete. A worker may complete the circuit by connecting the two wires from the backside of a PV panel.

When maintaining a PV system, it may become necessary at some point to disconnect or remove an individual panel from a string or an array. The whole system must be shutdown properly as a precautionary measure to prevent shocks from occurring to workers and arcing between electrical connections. This “shutdown” procedure must be followed with precision as part of a lock-out/tag-out program. This procedure is provided by the inverter manufacturer. Under no circumstances should SPF contractors ever disconnect or decommission a PV panel or system unless they are trained and qualified to do so.

HEAT BUILDUP

Photovoltaic panels convert approximately 15 to 20 percent of light to electricity, leaving the remaining unconverted energy to be released as heat. Additionally, PV panels are more effective when their temperature drops. It is for these reasons that the majority of rooftop PV systems are installed to encourage airflow under panels, which reduces the temperature of the panels, improves conversion efficiency and releases heat effectively. Photovoltaic panels installed 4 to 5 inches above the roof will not change the temperature of the roof and, instead, provide shade to the surface of that roof. This additional shade may extend the life of SPF roof coatings.

LOAD

PV panels add weight to a rooftop and this must be factored into the design and installation. Existing structures should be analyzed by a structural engineer to determine if the additional weight of the PV system is acceptable.

Rack-mounted arrays with penetrating attachments are fairly lightweight at 2 to 3 pounds per square foot, and ballasted arrays add 4 to 6 pounds per square foot. However, with the latter, more ballast is utilized at the perimeters and corners of a PV array. Thus, localized loading from ballast may reach as high as 12 to 17 pounds per square foot, which must be considered. Most SPF roofing systems have a compressive strength of 40 to 60 psi.

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Complete Cool Roof System Extends the Service Life of New and Existing Roofs

Rhino Linings released a complete cool roof system engineered to improve building energy efficiency while extending the service life of new and existing roofs.

Rhino Linings released a complete cool roof system engineered to improve building energy efficiency while extending the service life of new and existing roofs.

Rhino Linings Corp., a manufacturer and distributor of spray-on protective linings, coatings and foam, released a complete cool roof system engineered to improve building energy efficiency while extending the service life of new and existing roofs.

The DuraTite spray polyurethane foam (SPF) roofing system holds a UL 790 Class A fire rating and is designed to provide a lightweight insulation system over various roof constructions and configurations. Unlike traditional roofing methods, DuraTite SPF roofing system offers a high R-value for superior thermal insulation, covers complex geometrical shapes and protrusions and applies directly to existing substrates in new and retrofit applications.

In addition to DuraTite SPF roofing system’s high-performance, it also offers significant life-cycle cost savings. An SPF roofing system is seamless and requires little-to-no maintenance. Roofing topcoats, like DuraTite acrylic, silicone, urethane and polyurea coatings may be reapplied numerous times, increasing the life of the roof.

The complete system combines spray foam with a full range of acrylic, silicone, urethane and polyurea coatings for a total roofing system that insulates, seals and protects. Products in this system include:

  • Acrylic Coatings — DuraTite 1065 and DuraTite 1070 single component, acrylic roof coatings demonstrate excellent adhesion to polyurethane foam, concrete, masonry, primed metal, primed wood and primed asphalt roofs. When applied at 12 DFT (dry film thickness) and fully cured, DuraTite 1065 and 1070 exhibit exceptional weatherability and resistance.
  • Silicone Coatings — DuraTite 1380 and DuraTite 1395 are high-solid, single-component, silicone coatings with low VOCs and excellent chemical and abrasion resistance. When applied, DuraTite 1380 and 1395 form a breathable membrane, making it an ideal choice for new and recoat applications over metals, single-ply membranes, masonry block, concrete and spray polyurethane foam roofing systems where moisture may be present.
  • Urethane Coatings — DuraTite 1175 and DuraTite 1285 are high-solid, single-component urethane coatings that can be applied in a wide range of ambient temperatures and humidity levels. Both offer superior impact and crack resistance. DuraTite 1285 also offers enhanced UV stability.
  • Polyurea Coatings — DuraTite 2185 is a fast set, rapid cure, 100 percent solids, plural component aluminized polyurea spray-applied lining offers enhanced UV stability and remains flexible in cold temperatures. DuraTite 2185 demonstrates exceptional adhesion to spray polyurethane foam, concrete, bitumen and asphaltic roofing felts, steel, wood and most substrates in extreme cold and warm climates.
  • Spray Polyurethane Foam — DuraTite CC 2.5, DuraTite 2.8 and DuraTite 3.0 closed-cell polyurethane foam products’ lightweight, seamless construction ensures leak-proof performance and allows for value engineering labor and material cost savings.

DuraTite SPF roofing system guide specifications and five-, 10-, 15- and 20-year warranties are available for use on roof substrates, such as metal, built-up roof membrane, single ply, wood recoat and concrete.